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Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Potenza, Italy - Contribution of the Romanian Team

RESIDENCY AND CITIZENSHIP

-In Romania and partners countries-


Citizenship in France

  • The right of a person to live and work in France depends on their citizenship as follows:
1.Non-European Union Citizens:
A Carte de Séjour, also known as a Titre de Séjour, is a residence permit required by French law for any non-European Union citizen staying in France for a period longer than three months.
2. European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Citizens:
All EU citizens from the original accession countries, and EEA citizens and their family members have the right to live and work in France and do not require a work or residence permit.

EU Citizens: Definitions of Residence:
Foreigners in France are either active - working, or inactive - not working. Slightly different rules apply to each set and are defined as follows:
-Active: Anyone who is receiving an income in France from employment or self-employment.
-Inactive: Anyone who is not engaged in economic activity; is not employed or self-employed in France.
a) Active: rights of residence
EU citizens have the same rights to work and employment protection as a French citizen.
In order to exercise these rights, an active EU citizen needs to be able to show proof of employment.
b)Inactive: Student application for residence permit, optional
A student resident in France for a period less than five years may apply for an CE
student residence permit which is valid for a maximum of one year and can be renewed.
3) New EU Accession countries:
Citizens of the new EU member states Bulgaria and Rumania may live in France but there are limitations on the sectors in which they may be employed. These rulings apply for seven years from the point of the member country's accession to the EU. From 1 July 2008 many restrictions were removed for citizens of Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Limitations may also apply to non-EU citizens who hold residency permits from new accession states.




Residency in France

To reside or work legally in France, there is a requirement for the resident's permit known as the carte de séjour.
French residency is not difficult to obtain provided you have the correct paperwork, but it may take several months to process.

Non EU citizens

Unless you are a citizen of the European Union, you will need to contact the French Embassy/Consulate of your current country of domicile BEFORE you arrive to ensure you are arriving in France on the correct visa. Without the correct Visa applying for residency can become an even more complicated matter.
Procedures may vary for different nationalities and activities, therefore it is important to clearly explain to your French embassy your intended plans.

EU Member:
If you hold a passport for one of the member states of the European Union, you are
permitted to reside in France on your passport. Since November 2003 EU members no longer require a carte de séjour.
Practically France is still in transition with this new situation and you may find that you require one for certain administrative procedures relating to employment and registrations while other administrative bodies adjust their procedures.
The residency permit may vary in it’s validity and this will depend on the nature of your work contract or personal situation


Citizenship in Italy

The automatically obtaining of the Italian citizenship:
Ex: - if the mother or the father of the stranger is Italian.
-if the stranger is adopted by an Italian citizen.

Obtaining the citizenship by law benefits (declaration)
Ex: - if the stranger works in the Italian military service.
-if the stranger had been living for at least 2 years before he turned 18.

Obtaining the citizenship by marriage with an Italian citizen:
Ex: - if the stranger had been living for at least 6 months in Italy. Otherwise, the
citizenship can be obtain after 3 years of marriage.

The ordinary concession of the citizenship:
For obtaining the citizenship, the stranger must have sufficient income and he’s not supposed to have criminal record.


Residency in Italy

The stranger can obtain residence in Italy :
If you want to obtain the residence in Italy you have to be lawfully resident for at least five years. For obtaining the residence you need a labor contract (because you have to prove that you have enough income to keep yourself and your family) and the documents for the residence permit (four pictures, a stamp, a copy of your passport and a medical insurance).The time required for obtaining the residence is 70 days and the only expense you have to pay is the identity card's cost. After the 70 days of waiting you will be able to carry out any work (except those that are reserved only to the citizen) and will have access to services and benefits provided by the government, then even the social security and health.


Citizenship in Czech Republic

CZECH CITIZENSHIP :

Czech citizenship can be applied for upon fulfillment of the following conditions: Person has resided within the Czech Republic for at least five years, posess knowledge of the Czech language, has renounced previous citizenship, and has not been convicted of a crime in the previous five years. The five year residency requirement may be waived if the person has permanent residency and falls under any of the following categories:

- Person was born in the territory of the Czech Republic.
- Person was a citizen of the Czech Republic or Czechoslovakia.
- Person is married to a Czech citizen.
- An adopted child, one of whose parents is a Czech citizen, shall acquire Czech
citizenship at the date of adoption.

THE DUAL CZECH CITIZENSHIP IS NOT RECOGNIZED.

Exception: Person has been living in the Czech Republic for five years and the law of their home country does not allow them to be released from their citizenship. Person obtains dual citizenship (citizenship ex-lege).

Residency in Czech Republic

The Ministry of the Interior may (but is not obliged to) grant nationality of the Czech Republic only to persons satisfying all of the following conditions:
-he/she has been lawfully permanently residing in the Czech Republic for a period of at least five years as of the date of application and whose residence was more or less continuous;
-he/she proves that by being granted nationality of the Czech Republic he/she will lose their current nationality or proves that they have lost his/her current nationality - unless the person is a stateless person or a recognized refugee; a document proving loss of nationality is obtained after the Ministry of the Interior issues to the applicant a promise to grant Czech nationality;
-he/she has not been within the last five years sentenced for willful criminal offences (this is proved by submission of an extract from the Criminal Records Register of the Czech Republic);
-he/she proves in interview at the relevant authority their knowledge of the Czech
language (this does not apply to an applicant who is or who was a citizen of the Slovak Republic), and he/she meets all obligations arising from the provisions of a special legal regulation governing the entry into and residence in the Czech Republic (Act No. 326/1999 Coll. on the Residence of Aliens in the Czech Republic and on the Amendment to Some Other Acts, as amended) as well as obligations resulting from special provisions regulating public health insurance, social security, pension insurance, taxes, and other mandatory fees.


Citizenship in Turkey

How can you obtain the Turkish citizenship?
-If a stranger gets married with a Turkish citizen.
-If the marriage is proved to be false, the residence permit shall be revoked.
-The stranger must have resided in Turkey for 5 years, without any interruptions.
-The stranger should have no sickness or disease that threats the public.
-The stranger must have good moral standing, and having no relation to theft, smuggling, swindling etc.
-A child adopted by a Turkish citizen becomes Turkish automatically if aged less than 18 on the date the application for adoption was made.


Residency in Turkey

How can you obtain a residence in Turkey?

The stranger can obtain a residence by marrying with a Turkish citizen or with a person who has a residence in Turkey.

Duration of residence:
Permit various according to the purpose of the visit, the applicant’s country of origin and particular characteristics or affiliations of the applicant.

Long term residence permit :
Nationals of EU and OECD member states are initially granted a permit of three or five years.

Citizenship in Romania

By granting the request:

Art 8. – (1) Romanian citizenship can be granted, upon request, the foreign citizen or stateless person, if it meets the following conditions:

a) was born and resides, on application, on Romanian territory or, although not born in this territory, residing under the law on Romanian territory for at least 8 years or if he is married and living with a Romanian citizen, at least 5 years after marriage;
b) proves, the behaviors, actions and attitude, loyalty to the Romanian state said he would not undertake or support, nor in the past did not take or support legal actions against public order or national security;
c) age of 18 years;
d) in Romania has provided legal means for a decent life, under conditions established by the legislation on strangers;
e) is known with good behavior and has not been convicted in the country or abroad for an offense that makes him unworthy of being a Romanian citizen;
f) knows the Romanian language and have basic notions of Romanian culture and civilization, sufficiently for to integrate in social life;
g) knows the Romanian Constitution and national anthem.

(2) The terms under par. (1). a) can be reduced to half if the applicant is an internationally renowned personality or has invested in Romania amounts exceeding € 500,000.

Residency in Romania

If you are a citizen of a State nonUE / EEA, you have a valid right to stay in Romania and you want to get permanent residency in that state must meet certain conditions.

Granted permanent residence card to family members of Romanian citizens and is valid for 10 years and long-stay permit is valid for five years and is granted for other purposes of stay in Romania.

Conditions for granting permanent residency:

In order to qualify for permanent residence you must have had an uninterrupted legal residence in Romania in the last five years. Sitting is still considered when the period of absence from the territory of Romania is less than 6 consecutive months and not exceeding a total of 10 months. Lodging is considered legal if you was not ready against any measure to remove the national territory.
The period of residence for the purpose of education is calculated at half for permanent residence and do not take into account residence under diplomatic or service visa and no one obtained for activities as a seasonal worker.

What rights you have as a permanent resident:

If you are a holder of a right of permanent residence in Romania benefit of Romanian citizens equal treatment under the law, as follows: in Romania can work without work permit, based on an individual employment contract endorsed by the Labor Inspectorate. You have access to all forms and levels of education and training, including providing scholarships, education and recognition of equivalence of diplomas, certificates, certificates of professional competence and qualifications, will enjoy security and social protection, health care and social
benefit of income tax deductions and exemptions, you have access to public goods and services, including obtaining housing, freedom of association and affiliation and membership in a union or professional organization.


Residence in countries within the EU

If you have lived legally in another EU country for 5 years continuously - as an employee posted abroad, a pensioner or self-employed person - you automatically acquire the right of permanent residence there. This means that you can stay in the country as long as you want.

Your continuity of residence is not affected by:

-temporary absences (less than 6 months a year)
-longer absences for compulsory military service
-one absence of 12 consecutive months, for important reasons such as pregnancy and childbirth, serious illness, work, vocational training or a posting to another country.
You can lose your right to permanent residence if you live outside the country for over 2 consecutive years.

Permanent residence document

This is different from the registration certificate which is compulsory in many countries. The permanent residence document is not compulsory. It confirms your right to live in the country where you now live permanently, without any conditions. This means that the authorities may no longer require you to prove that you have a job, sufficient resources, health insurance, and so on. The permanent residence document can be handy when dealing with the authorities or for administrative formalities.

Expulsion

In exceptional cases, the country where you live can decide to expel you on grounds of public policy or public security but only if it can prove you represent a very serious threat.
The expulsion decision must be given to you in writing. It must state all the grounds and specify how you can appeal and by when.


Web resources :

Article “Visas & Immigration Law in France” published on 18th of October 2010 on
http://www.frenchlaw.com/Immigration_Visas.htm by French Law, date of view 18th of October 2010
Article “French Residency : carte de séjour” published on http://www.intransitinternational.com/moving_france_visa_work.html by Intransit International Ltd, date of view 19th of October
2010 http://www.immigrazioneoggi.it/channels/ro/archivio/testi/io_ed8_ro.pdf
http://www.justlanded.com/english/Italy/Italy-Guide/Visas-Permits/Residence-Permits
http://www.mvcr.cz/mvcren/article/granting-nationality-of-the-czech-republic.aspx
http://www.mymerhaba.com/Turkish-Nationality-in-Turkey-247.html
Article title: Romanian citizenship law Nr. 21/1991
Organization name: http://www.roembus.org/english/services/legea-cetateniei-romane.htm
Date of acces: 10:00 17.10.2010
Article title: PERMANENT RESIDENCE IN ROMANIA
Organization name: http://ori.mai.gov.ro/detalii/pagina/ro/Rezidenta-permanenta/79
Date of acces: 20:30 18.10.2010
Residence right when working in another EU country,
http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/citizens/residence/worker-pensione/rightsconditions/index_en.htm?profile=0?pop=unique&type=survey , 17 October 2010



Health effects of migration

  • Migrants may be exposed to health risks before, during and after leaving their countries of origin.
  • Before and during the journey, migrants may experience imprisonment, long stays in immigrants shelter or refugee camps, socioeconomic hardship, etc.

Some of the risks experienced by migrants after arriving in the recipient country:

-unemployment and lack of shelter
-loss of social status and change of roles, e.g. within the family
-language barriers
-lack of knowledge about health services in the new social context
-discrimination and marginalization.


The existential insecurity often leads to stress reactions with negative health impacts.
These impacts may happen directly through a higher stress response resulting in, for example, higher blood pressure, or indirectly through unhealthy behaviours, e.g. drug abuse, lack of resources to prioritize disease preventing behaviour and to seek health care when needed, or poorer adherence to medical advice.


The healthy migrant effect

There is often a selection in the people who migrate, as migrants are often healthier and younger than the majority in their countries of origin. This is called the healthy migrant effect.
The effect may fade out over time because migrants are exposed to risk factors in the recipient country.
Lack of social support, large geographic distances to members of the family, and high expectations from relatives in the countries of origin are sometimes additional stressors leading to mental health problems and risky health behaviour among migrants.




Labor migration and health in Romania

Research – only few studies:
-Psychological disorders in children left behind by migrant parents
-Psychosomatic problems of spouses and children of migrants
-Prevalence of alcohol, cigarettes and drug abuse – comparison between children of migrants and nonmigrants
-Probability to go to high school and university of children left behind by migrant parents

Psychosocial issues:
-Separation of spouses – marital problems – divorce
-Reunification – men sexually and emotionally distant
-New relations / idealization beyond reality
-Most affected – immigrant children or children left behind

Psychosocial issues:
-Women left behind - stress associated with the welfare of the absent husband, acquisition of new responsibilities and obligations and family disintegration
-Migration of spouses, coupled with non-remittance of financial support is associated with marked health effects in the family left behind & women are more
vulnerable than men
-The familial reorganization influences timely health
care-seeking behavior of female partners of migrants

Psychosomatic problems
-Peptic ulcer or stress-related ulcer
-Chronic tension headaches
-Chronic anxiety, sleep disorders, frequent headaches
-Hypochondria and paranoia
-Cultural differences in perceiving health, body and causes of disease
-Alcohol and drug abuse
-Fear of sexually transmitted infections among women with male migrant partners
-Schizophrenia
-Depression – suicides

Media coverage
-8 year old hangs himself after his mother went to Spain to work - Wednesday, February 27, 2007
-17 year old throws himself from the seventh floor – both parents working abroad - Wednesday, April 9,2007
-12 year old boy kills himself after finding out that his mother will return to work in Italy - Wednesday, October 1, 2007
-Missing his parents,16 year old shooting champion kills himself – Thurday, December 20, 2007


Migration, mental health and costs consequences in Romania

A study of the Psychiatric Clinic in Cluj-Napoca aiming to:
-describe the socio-demographic and clinical profile of the migrants who have developed mental illness;
-estimate their services use in terms of hospitalization;
-to analyze the cost impact on the Romanian health system and on the migrants' co-payments;
-to discuss the relationships between migration and mental health.

RESULTS

Most of the patients were young, single, with no previous experience abroad and with few social ties in the host country, with unqualified and insecure jobs.
45 out of 50 had schizophrenia spectrum disorders diagnoses.
The average costs of hospitalization per day per patient 15,56 Euro - total costs: 14 054, 92 Euro.
In order to cover the costs of hospitalization due to an illness with the onset abroad, a patient should work and contribute 4,65 years (on the basis of minimum salary) as a copayment for the hospitalization in Romania.

Medical staff exodus

Ever since it joined the EU in 2007, Romania, similar with other new
member states, is facing an exodus of its 'white-coat' staff. Unlike for construction workers, doctors and nurses from this new member country face no restriction on the labour markets in old member states.

Romania spends just 3,6% of GDP on healthcare, less per capita than any other EU
country;
Doctors earn around US$ 400 per month in Romania (in French, British and Scandinavian hospitals, a doctor could earn between 2000 and 7000 €);
Since 2007, almost 5000 doctors, 1 in 10, have left Romania for Western Europe.

"The loss is huge. The World Health Organisation says that when doctors'
migration exceeds two percent, the state must declare a code red and take measures to counteract the trend. In Romania, they should have declared a code 'super-red'," Vasile Astarastoae, the head of the Romanian Medical Council, declared in February 2010.

The medical staff brain drain is particularly worrying since Romania has a low density of physicians per inhabitants in Europe.
The last study carried out by the EU commission in 2008, which is however based on 2005 data, shows Romania and Poland with the lowest density of practicing physicians per 100.000 inhabitants, at around 30 percent below the EU average.

Resources:

Valentina Pop,“Medical staff exodus takes toll on new member states”, 2010, http://euobserver.com/867/29438
Maria Kristiansen, Anna Mygind& Allan Krasnik, “Health effects of migration” at Pub Med. com, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16999889;
Miclutia, Ioana, et al. "Migration, mental health and costs consequences in Romania." - The journal of mental health policy and economics 10.1 (2007);
Migration effects: “Children left behind. Risks and solutions” – Soros Foundation Romania, http://www.soros.ro/.



SOCIAL IMPACT OF
IMMIGRATION IN ROMANIA


How many immigrants live in Romania? Where do they came from?

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Where do they live?

Immigrants tend to settle in the largest cities:
Bucharest 47% (27.760)
Iasi 6,5% (3826)
Cluj 5,6% (3321)
ConstanŃa 5,4% (3210)
Timisoara 4,8% (2817)
GalaŃi 2,7% (1572)
Bacău 1,8% (1051)

Why are they here?

-Marriage or family reunification: 27,7%;
-Work: 16,6%;
-Study: 20%;
-Business:3,8%.

Where do they work?

-29% trade;
-28% production;
-20% services;
-11% banking and finance;
-7% construction;
-5% other (culture, sports, transport, telecommunications, gambling).


Moldovans in Romania

The historical particularities confer to the immigration from the Republic of Moldova a special status, namely: the nowadays territory of the Republic has entered in the component part of Romania in various historical periods, being
lost after 1940, and the citizens of the republic of Moldova speak the same language as Romanians (Romanian language), fact for which those who migrate at West of the Prut are considered as repatriated.

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The status of EU member of Romania (1st of January 2007) and the introduction of compulsory visas for the citizens from the Republic of Moldova have had as an effect the growth of requests of Romanian citizenship from 200.000 in 2002, to
500.000 in 2006 (the pre-adhesion year), to 800.000 - 1.000.000 after the 1st of January 2007, out of a total of 3,8 million, figure that represents the entire population of the Republic of Moldova.

Art. 10 from the Law on Romanian Citizenship specifies that Romanian citizens who until December 22, 1989 have lost their citizenship for reasons not attributable to them, and their descendants, have the right to ask for reacquisition of citizenship. According to the Romanian Justice ministry, nearly 120.000 Moldovans recovered Romanian citizenship between 1991 and 2009.

However, a small part of these permanently remain in Romania, mostly being in transit towards the West of Europe.
Therefore, Moldavian immigrants are:
-repatriated (the historical background)
and
-transit immigrants (the economic background).

Over 42% of Moldovans in Romania are pupils and students.
Romania grants a big number of scholarships for Moldovan youngsters, willing to study in Romania; at the admission exams at Romanian universities they candidate on separate places, especially for them. Most of them refuse to return to
Moldova after having completed their studies.

In April 2009, President Băsescu decided to simplify the procedures for obtaining citizenship to Moldovans with family ties to Romania. His decision was harshly
criticized by the German, British, French and Italian press.

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In July 2010, the German newspaper “Der Spiegel” published an article arguing that Romania is pushing Moldovans in the EU through the back door. Other articles have been published – two in the British press, one in Italian press, one in French press and some others – that dealt with the same issues: offering Romanian citizenship to Moldovans.

Daily Star, April 18, 2009
BRITAIN WELCOMES MILLION MOLDOVANS

“BRITAIN is set to be swamped by up to a million Moldovans after crazy European laws opened up a back-door route for them”.


Le Figaro, August 16, 2010
EU’S BACKDOOR THROWN OPEN

“Millions of Turks, Serbs, Moldovans, Ukrainians and Macedonians could soon be European citizens, thanks to some fancy footwork by new member states”.

IL GIORNALE, 19 luglio 2010
PASSAPORTI REGALATI, MOLDAVI PRONTI A INVADERCI

“Siamo in 28 e manco lo sapevamo. A regalare all’Unione europea il suo ennesimo,
invisibile e indesiderato Paese membro ci pensa Bucarest. (...) Moldavia, un residuato d’impero sovietico dove l’economia non supera gli standard di quella del Sudan. In quella miseropoli dimenticata, famosa un tempo solo per i traffici d’auto rubate e le ragazze destinate ai mercati della prostituzione, la gente passa le giornate in fila davanti all’ambasciata di Bucarest. Li per ordine del presidente romeno Traian Basescu si sono aperti i confini di un Nuovo Eldorado”.

Romania’s recent offer of citizenship to potentially large numbers of Moldovans has caused great concern in the European Union.
Romania is not the only country that has opened up its citizenship for populations living outside its territory.
Six of the old EU-15 member states have granted their nationality on grounds of cultural or ethnic affinity to persons residing permanently abroad.
All EU-12 new member states give privileged access to their citizenship to descendants of emigrants or persons with close cultural affinity, or have at least done so for a certain period after 1989.


Chinese in Romania

According to the statistics, there are over 8.000 Chinese immigrants in Romania. Most of the Chinese came to Romania after 1989.
-Most of Chinese immigrants are involved in commercial activities. They represent the so-called “business immigration”, a major phase of immigration in Romania, manifesting in the first postcommunist years, starting with 1990.

Chinese prefer to live in the largest Romanian cities: Bucharest, Cluj, or Constanta.
-In Bucharest, many Chinese people decided to settle in Colentina’s district, which is about to become a real “Chinatown”.
- Mixed families are quite rare.
-There is no Chinese school in Romania as most children are sent back to China for studies once they reach school-age.
-Most of the Chinese immigrants don’t speak Romanian.
-In the Romanian town of Bacău, 360 km north of Bucharest, several hundred Chinese women are working for Wear Company, own by an Italian investor.
-They tend not to venture out much, keeping mostly to a dormitory that has been built to house them. There, they play cards and tune in to their favorite television shows, beamed over from China.

Another example of Chinese workers in Romania is Huawei factory.
The company has 340 employees, 30% of whom are Chinese. 170 work in the local center, the rest being employed in a financial support center based in Bucharest, but which provides services to all of Europe.
Huawei is a leading global telecommunications solutions provider with long-term partnerships with operators around the world.Huawei first entered Romania in 2000.

Alongside the small Chinese traders, the Chinese Triads groups have also entered Romanian territory. They deal with debt collection, protection money, and trafficking of human beings or drugs.
More than 20 Chinese were victims of the Chinese Mafia over the past years. Unusual violence and cruelty are specific to the Chinese crimes. The victims were hacked into pieces, boiled, and the chopped corpses were put in suitcases. The Romanian Police failed to arrest the criminals in most cases.

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Bucharest will have its own China Town, like many other cities in the world.
Chinese investors developed a joint real estate project named “China Town” in Afumati (Ilfov County), near Bucharest. The project implies investments worth
over 100 million Euro and will be developed in several stages.

The first stage - building 350 shops – has already been completed. Three more
commercial halls will be constructed until 2011, which will host another 1,240 new shops.
The second phase, scheduled for completion in 2013, refers to the construction of
residential areas, parks, alleys, schools, kindergartens, shops, restaurants and warehouses.


Turks in Romania

The majority of Turks live in Constanta county, in the historical region of Dobrogea.
Dobrogea has been occupied by the Otoman Empire for over 400 years.

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There are over 10.000 immigrants from Turkey (17% of the total number of the legal immigrants). Statistics show that 23,9% of the Turkish immigrants have married a Romanian resident.

Soon after 1990, Turks chose Romania for emigration because of the commercial activities and due to the fact that Romania was a favorable legal and institutional environment for the business sector.
This first wave (a few thousands), with modest capital, started small ventures (e.g. bakeries, textile boutiques, etc.). The firms’ financing was based on rather informal sources, such as personal savings, loans from family and friends, home equity loans. They sent positive feedback regarding the Romanian business environment, the civil society’s open attitude, the tolerance towards foreign entrepreneurs.

The second more consistent wave, has followed after a few years, as a result of encouraging performance obtained by the first wave of entrepreneurs.
These immigrant entrepreneurs, highly motivated, have had usually previous experience in venture field, more developed financial skills, power in dealing with people, which, combined with the Romanian market opportunities, have been key to their business success.

Turkish entrepreneurs have had a significant contribution to the success of transition to a market economy, as well as to economic recovery, in post-1989
Romania.
A very important aspect of this is their support to creating an entrepreneurial culture in Romania, based on their successful integration in the Romanian
economy whilst preserving their cultural identity and respecting the basic values of Romanian society.
There were socio-economic benefits, consisted of social bonds, which created flexible ways to attract personnel and capital, the potential of organizing businesses and the capacity to generate market niches for specific cultural goods (e.g. music, food).


The Arab-origin immigrants

The first citizens from several Arab states like Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Lebanon came to study in communist Romania during the ’70s-’80s, when
Romania had official agreements with some of the Arab states. In those years, the communist Eastern countries supported what they considered anti-imperialist allies, like the Arab states.

After the fall of the communist regime, some of the former students decided to
return to Romania and start a business in the newly-democratic state. Between
1992 and 1995 a new, but smaller wave of Arabian citizens came to Romania for
business purposes.

The Arab-origin “business” immigrants are involved mainly in trade, tourism, services and real estate. Some of them are very wealthy.
With a fortune of 350 US$ millions, the Syrian businessman Fathi Taher is the richest Arab in Romania. He made much of his fortune investing in real estate. He was accused of being involved in illegal affairs, but this was not proved by the
Romanian justice department.

Most Arab immigrants in Romania declare to be quite content with their lives here.
Mixed families (Romanian wife –Arab husband) are a common sight. The children are well-integrated at school. Some of the children from mixed families speak only Romanian, but they are all Muslims. Girls are allowed to wear the hijab in schools.
“Muslims have lived for more than eight centuries in these lands. Romania provides an example of religious tolerance and co-existence,” the country´s
Islamic mufti, Iusuf Muurat,declared for the Ziua daily newspaper on 29th November 2008.


A Romanian hero

-Raed Arafat is a Palestinian doctor that lives in Romania
for 20 years now.
-He set up from the scratch a public emergency intervention system at amazing standards that saves everyday hundreds of lives.
-In 2003, he was made a Knight of the National Order of Merit of Romania.

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Since August, 2009, he holds the position of Under-Secretary of State for Health


The Arab Mafia

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The criminals of Arab origin are involved in complex networks of drug trafficking,
trafficking stolen cars, armed robberies, debt and protection money collection. Apparently, some Romanian politicians are connected to these mafia-like structures.

French, Italian and German Investors in Romania


Thee main reasons for their presence in Romania:
-the labor force is cheaper than in their home countries and as a result of that, they can increase their profits;
-Romanian workers are qualified so they are up to the European working standards;
-in 2007 , the custom taxes have been eliminated so the investors could export their products for the same money they could do it from their homeland.

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-28.000 Italian firms in Romania (June 2010);
-14.000 German firms (2nd place, after Italy) : Continental, DaimlerChrysler, INA Schaffler KG Wintershall, E.ON AG, Allianz, Leoni, Praktiker, RWE (RRR-Remmert Recycling), British American Tobacco.
-5.985 companies with French capital: Alcatel, Orange, Renault, Lafarge, St. Gobain, Baltazar, Michelin, Carrefour, Auchan, Groupama, etc.



Romania continues to be mainly a transit country, the number of foreigners, refugees that are given any form of protection being a reduced one. But with the adherence to the Schengen Space, there will be a natural increase of the immigrants' number.


Resources:

InfoStat, Octobrie 2009, Oficiul Român pentru Imigrări, http://ori.mai.gov.ro/
http://www.amfiteatrueconomic.ro/temp/Article_985.pdf Art 985
La Roumanie, nouvelle terre d'immigration, article publié le 14 Juillet 2009, par Mirel Bran, source : LE MONDE
EU’s backdoor thrown open, http://www.presseurop.eu/en/content/article/316361-eu-sbackdoor-thrown-open
Arabii din Romania, radiografie completă, de Andi Laslau , Evenimentul Zilei, 27 aprilie 2005
http://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/view/77251/Britain-welcomesmillion-
Moldovans/

http://www.ilgiornale.it/esteri/passaporti_regalati_moldavi_pronti_invaderci/19-07-2010/articolo-id=461777
Is Romania a home for immigrants? by Luciana Grosu, article published in October 2009 on the website of the German foundation Heinrich-Bölle-Stiftung
http://www.romania-insider.com/china-town-romania-startsworks-on-the-second-phase/
www.bloombiz.ro/.../28.000-de-firme-italiene-in-romania

3 comments:

Anonymous said...

why don't you publish the work of other countries?

Rox said...

It is published on the other pages of the blog.

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