Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Potenza, Italy - Contribution of the Turkish Team

The Impacts of the Internal Migration

Although migration appears change in geographical location in the first sight, it is a fact that the causes of migration and its results have a great impact on individuals and society. Migration, which occurs as a result of changes in the economical,cultural,psychological and political structures of social transformation, causes important alterations in social structure especially in the western part of Turkey.

a-Accommodation Difficulties

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b-Family Problems
c- Educational Problems of Children
When we look at psychological part of migration, women experience most serious unjust treatments. A woman who has position of producer loses her position ,she is closed in her home,in her living area whose culture she even doesn’t know. Problems of physical and psyhological health begin to arise commonly.
Children exprience unjust treatment because their family can’t find a job.When unqualified fathers can ‘t get jobs children become economic power of the family and they are pushed to work in the street.Children in the street face with harassment, kidnapping, killing, injuring, being forced to crime, disoreder of physical and psychological development, drug addiction and violence due to the lack of education. According to studies it is observed that children working in the streets are children of families who migrate from East and Southeastern Anatolia in 10 -15 years.(75%)
A) Population
Demographic Facts of Turkey
Population (000) in 2000 ........................................ 66,591 Annual population growth rate (%) ..................... 1.43
Population in year 2015 (000) ................................ 80,284 Total fertility rate (/woman) ................................. 2.23
Sex ratio (/100 females) .......................................... 102.0 Life expectancy at birth (years)
Age distribution (%) Males.................................................................... 68.0
Ages 0-14.............................................................. 28.3 Females ................................................................ 73.2
Youth (15-24) ....................................................... 20.6 Both sexes............................................................ 70.5
Ages 60+............................................................... 8.5 GNP per capita (U.S. dollars, 1998).................... 3160
Sources: Data are from the Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of
the United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision; GNP per capita is for the
year 1998 from the UNDP, Human Development Report 2000, based on World Bank data
(World Bank Atlas method).

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Found out to be approximately 13.6 million in the census carried out in 1927, the
population of Turkey reached 71.517.100 million by an increase of 5 times in the census in
2008 according to Address-Based Population Register System (ADNKS). After the
foundation of the Republic, a policy that encouraged population increase was followed for the realization of industrialization, the most important objective. However, a completely contrary policy was intended to be implemented after the 1960s. In spite of this, the reasons such as economic crises and World War II caused the rate of population increase to follow a very imbalanced course. That’s why, there was not much increase in the periods when it was intended to implement policies that encouraged population increase, and considerable development was achieved as of the 1950s.
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B) Urbanization
Having not occurred depending on industrialization in our country, the
phenomenon of urbanization and internal migration displayed themselves as the accumulation
of population in urban areas and caused the multiplication of the problems already existing in
cities. Urbanization in Turkey is similar to the urbanization process of less developed
countries in many aspects. Not developing by being planned and controlled, this urbanization
leads to many problems particularly such as business life, environmental damage and
environmental pollution.
Our cities have been unable to absorb these very intensive migration waves with the same speed. These crowded people, who particularly come from the rural areas, who are helpless and uneducated without any knowledge other than agricultural production, feel themselves as strangers in the cities they arrive in and either they are unable to adapt to the society or a long period of time has to pass to this end.

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Cities growing fast have made difficult the controling of urban development. Supplying the service of residence, water, sewage system, transport, school and health have become more expensive. It is a fact that big cities face with problems of transport, residence, pure drinking water, sewage system.
The migrants from rural areas to urban areas also have difficulty in how to integrate
with the city and the society besides physical infrastructural problems. Briefly, searches for
cultural identity, religious identity, ethnic identity and political identity drove the Turkish
society to depression.
As a result of insufficient measures by government ,cities haven’t integrated migrants so insufficient or lack of infrastructure have caused cities to become villages and suburbs.
The areas losing population send not only their village-origin groups but also other groups living in city and districts and, more importantly, their cultural, economic and social accumulations. It can be stated that the selectivity and direction of migration cause erosion both in the villages and in the cities of sending areas.
Another important issue is the changes in the numbers of provinces, districts and
villages. As a result of the evacuation of villages upon internal migration and urbanization,
the number of provinces, being 63 in 1927, rose to 81 in 2000. Likewise, the number of
districts also rose; however, the number of villages decreased despite the population increase.
The people, who are disconnected with and come from rural areas or small
settlements, mostly lack the characteristics demanded by urban areas. At the same time, the
people, who migrate to urban areas, are generally young people. They have arrived with the
hope of finding a good and permanent job. Nevertheless, the young migrants to cities were
unable to have an opportunity of income in modern sectors immediately. The jobs they could
have when they arrived in the city prevented them from being assimilated and they were engaged in jobs bringing income in the unregistered sector in these places. These jobs were rather commercial and service activities that did not require much capital and skill. A considerable majority had to accept jobs where wages were rather low and job security and social security were poor. These negative conditions in cities also increase youth crimes.
The commencement of intensive agriculture has also caused many people to become unemployed. It is not possible for the people to find a job immediately when they migrate to urban areas where the industrial sector and sector of services are intensive. These people are expected to have the qualifications and education level demanded by industry and the sector of services.
Migration causes high rate of unemployment, increasing poverty, and injustice of distribution of income and the fair reduction in the financial gains of education and the fact that child labor becomes widespread. Child labor is particularly common in practices of assigning work at home and in the unregistered sector. The effect of migrations on female labor is the withdrawal of female labor, generally used as an unpaid family laborer in rural areas, from working life. This cheap workforce without a bargaining power is qualified as a “spare workforce” for employers. It is a suitable type of labor for the employers who want to weaken the power of organized labor or at least to break the bargaining power.
Employment and unemployment are problems that arise depending on the macroeconomic
policies being implemented besides the economic and social structures of our
country. The recent quite rapid population increase in Turkey (although it has fallen below
2%) and experiencing the phenomenon of rapid migration from rural areas to urban areas in
this connection make this problem more severe in our country, where the economy is not
strong enough.
While a structural change arises in workforce together with increased population rate and internal migration and besides developing technology, unemployment has begun to reach serious dimensions. In this line, it is possible to state that migration has changed workforce structure and has had an important effect on the increase in unemployment.
EnvIronmental Impacts
- Traffic jam increases with the population growth
- Squatter areas grows rapidly in the surrondings of cities
- Houses are built in these places which are not suitable for settlement and huge material damages are occured by flood after rainfall
- Migration causes the need of land; so agricultural areas turns into residental areas
- Rapid migration causes deforestration and housing in these forested lands
- It also causes the disappearance of scenic beauties
- As a result of rapid population growth in cities, the number of houses and vehicles increase and air and environmental polution get worse
After 1950 workers start to go abroad – especially to Germany-Today there are our workers in France,Belgium,Holland(the Neatherlands),England,Sweden,United States of America,Australia,Libya,S.Arabia,Kuwait,the middle of Asia. We have more than 4 million citizens living abroad now.
Emigration and Its Economic Impacts
When the Turkish government promoted labor emigration as a tool of economic development
in the early 1960s, the basic idea was to reduce the pressure of unemployment, to gain foreign
currency through remittances, and to provide some direct or indirect development strategies
for underdeveloped regions of the country. Today, economies of many emigration
regions in Turkey are better, stronger, or more efficient as a consequence of emigration:
They have sent remittances, bought homes and lands, and made investments. At the very least, this combination of massive emigration and the maintenance of a high level of contact with homeland is an important factor of change in Turkey’s economic and social life.
Workers’ remittances greatly contribute to the country’s economy. Since the onset of mass labor migration from Turkey in the early 1960s, remittances have become an important element of the Turkish economy, an important source of foreign exchange, and a major contribution to offsetting the country’s trade deficits.
The Turkish economy becomes integrated into the world economy through liberalization.
Emigration has obviously helped to reduce unemployment pressures in Turkey. Turkey's unemployment problem was partly solved with three million expatriate Turkish citizens working in Europe; their remittances had financed two thirds of the country’s trade deficit in the 1990s; and they took on the bridging role between Turkey and the EU.
While Turkey has a long history of emigration of a certain level of skilled labor, the nature of this movement has changed over time: as far as the early guest-worker movement was concerned, nearly onethird of emigrants were skilled workers such as masons, carpenters, and plumbers. However, the proportion of skilled workers declined dramatically in later periods. Moreover, particularly since 1980s, there is a growing trend of brain-drain from Turkey. Many university graduates has migrated to the traditional migrant receiving countries of the United States, Canada, and Australia.

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Emigration and Its Social, Political, Psychological and Cultural Impacts
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According to recent data,the total number of Turks who live in West Europe is 3.155.122.As seen on the table ;2/3 of Turk citizens live in Germany.
The first generation Turks who went to Germany in 1960’s are mostly self-renounced people.Most of them had to do worst jobs which native people did not want to do.They lived in hostels for singles.The hostels were next to their job and in bad conditions.This made them isolate themselves from local people.As they were accepted as a ‘guest’ their adaptation to German society,learning language,problems of accommodation and social security occured.At first to be isolated was not a problem for them and Germany.After the first generation Turks decided to take their family there seriousness of this problem became clear.Better education,social security system of health,allowance of unemployment make people think to stay there longer.Desire of living collectively,not to break their traditions,religious,languages and their culture made them become ethnic minority in the society.As a result Turks contributed to create view of multicultural society.
Although second and third Turkish generations adapted themselves to the culture of the place they settled down, they are still alien in the society. They don’t know where they belong to and in search of their identity. There is a big cultural diversity and they improve crossbred identity. Because of putting two cultures together, these generations’ integration with native society can be more possible. But, It needs to be emphasized that second and later generations, even though it doesn’t include all the Turks living abroad, are affected more immensely by alien enmity which is called “racialism’’. First generation aliens who worked where native people didn’t want to, intially, weren’t a threat to native workers. Because they didn’t know the language. It would be false to say that racial problems were as bad as today. The most important factor behind racial behaviours derives from the fact that the second and the following aliens who are educated well there can compete effectively with the native people in science and work fields and from the fact that they don’t desire the jobs followed by their ancestors. It’s a fact that this competition doesn’t arise positive results for people of this country today, when the rate of the economic growth of the past is no longer valid. In a sense, it is important to compare the unemployment rate among the Turks in these countries with the general unemployment rate in terms of the racial discrimination seen there.
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It is for sure when the rates of general unemployment in West European countries are taken into consideration, the high unemployment rate among the Turks becomes very distrubing. This shows the other side of the alien enmity. In other words if they need to make a choice between a Turk and a native whose qualities are equall, they are most of the time for the native. In England, for example, with a purpose to prevent this, it is known that different arrangements have been made and in order to provide opportunity equality in work applications to people of different races. The assaults starting in 1940’s and still continuing in 1980’s on the Turkish families living in Köln and Solingen resulted in loss of human life, which is an unforgettable tragedy. They are not limited to Germany. The murder of a Turkish woman and her five children in an assault in Lahey, Holland and some other painful incidences in other countries are the signs of the ongoing alien enmity. As a result of this alien enmity through discrimination, some particular groups within the society have taken it to the point of assaulting the aliens.
As Turks generally tend to settle down in those countries, this situation increases the importance of a culturally diversified life and it becomes an unavoidable case to be able to live under equal circumstances with other different groups of people. There is no other solution rather than integration and multi-cultural approaches to the problem. Even though they are granted “citizenship” in law, it is clear that it would be so on the paper if they didn’t feel that they were living in a peaceful atmosphere. When you think of the point arrived at, the West European countries, as a result of the immigration they received, have become “multi-cultural countries”. We could call them “democratic” but their attitudes towards the attacks the aliens and how the alien enmity problem will be solved will determine whether the Turks will settle down there or not.
International migration also has positive impacts on the Turkish emigrants. Women started to participate in labor force and increase their economic well-being, their social status have opportunities for schooling training. Emigration affected women and childrens’ role too much through several ways, women have more authority within the family as fathers began to lose their traditional authority over children. Turkish people’s social standing improved in rural and urban areas in their hometown. When they return home with changed attitudes and behaviors: they are called “Almanyalı”, which means “Turk from Germany” by the local people to indicate their difference and richness. The reintegration of return migrants and their families in Turkey also is a complexity. The children of returnees had serious problems in adapting to the very different social and educational environment of Turkey. In order to overcome certain education-related problems of the children of returnees particularly from Germany, the Turkish government has set up some secondary schools where the medium of education was German. Civic values such as respect for human rights and democracy tend to increase with the experience of emigration. Other social consequences of emigration can be observed in the areas of demography and urbanization. Since the early 1960s, emigration from Turkey has almost invariably exceeded immigration causing a slower population growth than that would happen otherwise. Meanwhile, emigration also caused a slowdown effect on internal migration from rural to urban areas, mainly from east-to-west. In the 1960s, those early internal migrants who had migrated from east to west, or from rural to urban areas in the 1950s, tended to emigrate from Turkey to Europe: this was a type of step-by-step migration, moving internally first, and then internationally.
1990s to present
Germany – which was divided at the end of WW2 between Russian-controlled East Germany, and free West Germany, became reunited in 1992. The less well-off East Germans now want the jobs that many Turkish workers do – leading to calls to ‘send the Turks home’. But many Turks are now 2nd or 3rd Generation Germans – who view Germany as ‘home’. So most of the Turkish people get German citizenship and have dual citizenship. As a result they get the same rights with the German people.
1.The culture of food, clothing, music has diversified
2.A new and rich culture has taken shape as a result of the meeting of different cultures.
3.Unemployment rate within the country has gone up.
4.Thanks to the relations of the immigrants with their homelands, the ties between Turkey and those countries have improved.
5.Acres of land which are not in use began to be cultivated.
6.At the first stage, some conflicts and misunderstandings between the natives and the immigrants occured due to certain integration problems such as language and social habits.

C.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Mayıs 2002 Cilt : 26 No: 1 45-60
Human Development Research Paper 2009/52 International Migration and Human Development in Turkey /Ahmet Içduygu
Murat G. Kırdar and D. Şirin Saracoğlu† Middle East Technical University,Department of Economics, 06531 Ankara Turkey
G:\göç çalışmalar\Ecem\Tum Materyaller\(HANDE) gocgenelbilgi[1].htm
Growth and Immigration Scenarios for Turkey and the EU
Refik Erzan, Umut Kuzubas and Nilufer Yildiz
C.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi Mayıs 2002 Cilt : 26 No: 1 45-60
Cemal Yalçın
Health, Wealth or Family Ties? Why Turkish Work Migrants Return from Germany
Oliver Razum ; Nuriye N. Sahin-Hodoglugil ;Karin Polit

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