Sunday, June 6, 2010

Manisa, Turkey : Causes of migration [Part 2] - Contribution of the Romanian Team, Contribution of the Italian Team, Contribution of the Czech Team


Causes of migration in Romania

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During the 20th Century the migration process developed significantly. The causes were mainly political. In this period, Romania was predominantly a country of emigration. A large number of people decided to head for the United States, mostly the population of Transylvania. Because of major political change, the Hungarian population in this area emigrated back to their country. In spite of the large number of Hungarians who leaved (approx. 200000 ethnics), they remained the most important minority in Romania.
During the Second World War, the bulk of the Jewish population living on Romania‘s present territory was deported. Following the Second World War, approximately 70.000 ethnic Germans were deported to the Soviet Union, and many more were forcibly relocated within Romanian territory. This happened because of the war and for ethnical and religious reasons.

In 1947 , Romania became a communist country. As a result, the migration diminished because of the very restrictive exit policies that the government applied. Under the repressive regime, those who wanted to leave the country were forced to cross the boarders illegally or to be politically exiled. Many personalities of the Romanian cultural life have taken part to the phenomenon of migration in their circle of activity. For example, Paul Goma, used to support (from Paris) the Romanians in the country who wanted to flee abroad. This period, the main cause of the emigration was political.

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High expectances of a better life after the ‘89 Revolution were not confirmed and disappointment contributed to the structuring of migration decisions. To cope with an unstable social and economic environment, individuals chose different strategies. Migration was an innovative life strategy at the beginning of the ‗90s, when migration policies were still restrictive, favoring the emergence of informal mobility networks.
Migrants came from unstable environments and tried to avoid the negative impact of the transition process by resorting to atypical, risky solutions. Decisions to migrate were generally reached at gradually after several failed attempts to make a living in the home country, such as job or occupation changes or internal migration. The following fragment is illustrative for the gradual structuring of the migration intention.

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The deficiencies of the economic environment in Romania represents the primary push factor for migration. The lack of occupational opportunities lay at the basis for the acceptance of inferior occupations abroad.
For instance, a Romanian resident doctor earns about 450€ a month, while in the Western European countries the monthly income exceeds 3000€. This is the reason why most of the young doctors choose to leave our country. This phenomenon creates problems to the national medical system.
More and more students decide to begin their studies abroad, the main destinations being the UK, France, Germany or the USA. After graduating, some of them decide to find a job and settle down in the destination country and some decide to return to Romania. The reason of their choice is the lack of opportunities in our country.
Emigration causes:
  • During World War II, half of the Jewish population of Romania and 70.000 Germans were deported back to their countries.
  • In the Communist Era, the few emigrants that left the country were those who had social and economic rights revoked and were harassed by authorities.
  • After 1990, people started to leave for other countries in order to cope with an unstable social and economic environment.
  • Starting with the 21st Century, students began their studies abroad in order to have better chances to find a job and a higher standard of life.
Even now, Romania is an emigration country. The main causes are political and economical.
The immigration rate is low, in spite of the high opportunities of investment.

Causes of migration in the Czech Republic

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Since regaining its freedom in 1989 and peacefully splitting from the Slovak Republic in 1993, the Czech Republic has been transforming its former socialist/communist society into a democratic, parliamentary one based on a free-market economy. Like many other Eastern European countries, the Czech Republic has transformed in the last 15 years from a land of emigration to one of transit and immigration.
The first immigrants arrived in the 13th and 14th centuries from the actual German territory. They settled in newly established towns, villages in border zone areas, and in highlands, and they played an important role in Czech lands (Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia) until the end of the 1940s.
Between 1850 and 1914, approximately 1.6 million people of the Czech population, most of them agricultural and industrial workers, went to the United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Austria, Hungary, Russia, and countries of the former Yugoslavia in search of economic opportunities.
After the formation of Czechoslovakia, people continued to emigrate for economic and family reunification reasons, mainly to the US, France, and Germany. This emigration flow peaked in the early 1920s, but continued until the end of the 1930s. Following World War I, 40,000 Czechs returned from the US and about 100,000 returned from Austria. The flow of returnees was smaller than the emigration flow, and the Czech Republic's population decreased in this interwar period.
According to the Czechoslovakian census, in 1921 there were about 3 million Germans, composing 30.6% of the population. In the interwar period, more Germans than Czechs worked in its booming industrial sector, mainly in light branches like glass and textiles. Few Germans left Czechoslovakia during this time; their share of the population stood at 29.5% in 1930 and 29.2% in September 1938.
Between 1945 and 1946, approximately 2.8 million Germans (about 25% of Czechoslovakia's population of that time) were expelled from the country, most of them returning to Germany.
During the communist era (1948 to 1989), highly skilled Czechs and Slovaks continued to leave the country despite the risks. From 1950 through 1989, it is estimated that more than 550,000 people emigrated. Emigration meant breaking all family ties and social networks because those who left were not allowed to return. In addition, emigration was considered a criminal offense. The consequences included confiscation of possessions and sometimes the persecution of relatives.
Reasons behind this highly skilled emigration were mostly political and economic. Some people could no longer bear the anti-democratic and totalitarian regimes while others were dissatisfied with their general standard of living.
When the Czech Republic split from Slovakia in 1993, it carried over some migration provisions from the 1989-1992 Czechoslovakia period. More importantly, in 1993 the newly independent country established a liberal migration policy that, coupled with the country's geographic position, helped the Czech Republic become home to tens of thousands of migrants from Europe and Asia during the 1990s. The majority have been economic migrants and their families, but many quasi-legal migrants who made use of loopholes in the legislation have also entered.
In the mid-1990s, thousands of Czech Roma applied for asylum first in Canada and then in the UK. The Roma have faced high levels of discrimination, unemployment, and poverty.
Emigration, which initially increased in the years just after independence in 1989, dropped significantly after 1993 to an average of about 850 emigrants per year, according to official records.

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Immigrants have been attracted to the Czech Republic because of its strong labor market.
In 2004, there were 173,000 immigrants in the country who held work-related permits, 62% for temporary working and 38% for doing business in the country (the latter is easier to obtain, however). A third of the economically active foreigners are in Prague.
The main countries of origin were Ukraine, Slovakia, Vietnam, Poland, Russia, Germany, Bulgaria, and Moldova. In addition to Germany, legal immigrants came from the following Western countries: the US, Austria, the UK, France, Japan, the Netherlands, Greece, and Canada.

Conclusions : Emigration causes in the Czech Republic
• Agricultural and industrial workers emigrated from Czech at the end of the 19th century and the beginning 20th century in search of economic oportunities.
• After the formation of Czechoslovakia, people continued to emigrate for economical reasons and family reunification.
• After the World War II, approximately 3 million Germans left Czechoslovakia after being expelled.
• In the Communist Era, people emigrated for political and economical reasons, due to the communist system and dissatisfaction with their general standards of living.
• Roma people left Czech Republic in the mid-1990s after facing problems of discrimination, unemployment, and poverty.

Conclusions : Immigration causes in the Czech Republic
• The German immigrants came in Czech lands as workers in the industrial sector.
• After the separation between the Czech Republic and Slovakia, immigrants came in the newly independent country because of its liberal migration policy and for economical reasons.
• Czech Republic was an attraction for immigrants because of its strong labor market and because foreigners are easily able to find jobs.

Bibliography of the presentation of migration causes in Romania:
  • Sandu, Dumitru (coord.) – Locuirea temporară în străinătate. Migraţia economică a românilor : 1990-2006, Bucureşti, Fundaţia pentru o Societate Deschisă, 2006
  • Romania, country profile,
  • Recensământul Comunitar al Migraţiei, 2001/2002, OIM

Bibliography of the presentation of migration causes in Czech Republic:



The Italian peninsula has been a ‗border region‘ for centuries. Once it had lost its political centrality on the global scene with the decline and fall of the Roman empire, Italy long marked a civilisational frontline between Christianity and Islam. Later it became sidelined as a battleground between European powers, which helps to explain why it gained national independence so late. In the last century, it constituted a crucial segment in the global geopolitical divide between east and west, host to the largest Communist Party, as well as to one of the highest concentrations of United States troops in western Europe.
In the 1980s Italy found itself transformed from a country of emigrants — providing a larger number of immigrants to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries than any other European country — to a net receiver of immigrants.

We can divide the process of migration in four phases:

1870-1914 -> Transatlantic migration to: the USA, Argentina, Brazıl, Canada,

Causes: slow and difficult economic
development in Italy;
Features: departure of illitterate

In the 1860s, transatlantic migration was most frequent among northern Italians and was often associated with certain trades; for example, farmers, artists, and street traders tended to emigrate to America.
Two decades later, however, the trend had become a mass phenomenon, with the main migrants increasingly emanating from the south
1914-1945 -> No emigration because of: The United States‟s strict immigration laws;
The fascist regime in Italy;
II World War.
In the 1920s the United States introduced strict immigration laws, and economic conditions in Brazil and Argentina deteriorated so much that transatlantic emigration was stymied. In addition, the fascist regime opposed emigration, and during World War II emigration halted almost completely.

1945-1970 ->European migration to: France, West Germany, Switzerland;
Internal migration from the south to the north of Italy;
Causes: post-war industrialization;
Features: male flow.
After 1945 destinations were mainly European, the most popular being France initially and then West Germany and Switzerland. During this period the nature of emigration patterns changed, becoming less stable. In many cases the emigrants were mostly male, as some European countries refused entry to workers‘ relatives because of housing shortages. Often Italian workers would remain abroad for short periods of time, returning every so often to Italy. On the eve of the 1973 oil embargo more than 850,000 Italians were working in Switzerland and countries of theEuropean Economic Community (EEC); later succeeded by the European Union (EU]), where the ensuing recession and rising unemployment forced many Italians back home.

1970-nowadays -> IMMIGRATION from: the north of Africa and Eastern Europ
Causes: political persecution or search of work
Features: hight rate of illegal immigration
EMIGRATION: Brain drain: migration of the best young graduates
to European countries(56%),
the USA(39%) and Asia(5%);
Causes: lack of job, lack of financial support to research;
Features: better working conditions and higher wages for high skilled workers abroad.

During the 1960s, Italy experienced a rapid transformation from a still largely rural and traditional society, to an industrial and predominantly urban one. The transformation was quick in economic structures and behaviour patterns.
Immigration began with the opening up of minor niches in local labour markets (leading to Cape Verde domestic workers in Rome or Tunisian fishermen in Sicily) but it soon expanded to growing segments across all economic sectors (cattle-breeding, fruit-picking, metal and mechanical industry, catering).
This penetration of foreign labour was facilitated by some emerging features of the Italian economy. The growing proportion of small and medium enterprises in the 1980s, and the simultaneous expansion of the hidden economy, acted as powerful facilitating factors. Meanwhile, the basic character of the nation‘s social model and welfare system helped reinforce this immigration trend. Even at the height of its modernisation, family networks retained a strong role in the provision of basic care services within Italian society. Public welfare evolved in the same way, with scant provision to cover the needs of children and elderly people. But with the
loosening of family ties, the shrinking of families and the increase in female participation to the labour force, that system proved less and less sustainable. Some compensatory support was badly
needed: Somali, Philippine, Romanian and Ukrainian housekeepers, baby-sitters and care-workers thus became indispensable to millions of Italian families.
The majority of new arrivals settle in the north and centre of Italy, but the south has a relatively higher proportion of African and North American immigrants than the north.
The collapse of communist regimes in eastern Europe brought fresh waves of immigrants from Poland, Romania, Albania, the Yugoslav region, Turkey . Many arrived via seaports on the Adriatic coast, claiming refugee status.
Overloaded ships arrived on Italy's shores from Albania, Turkey, and other countries full ofmigrants that looked at Italy as a final destination and as a bridge to other countries of the European Union.
Since the 1990s Italy has faced a new case of emigration: “brain drain” while other large economies in the European Union seem to experience a ‖brain exchange‖.
This phenomenon is due to the uneasiness of many Italian college graduates forced to work abroad because of the lack of job and research opportunities in the country.
Some people claim that part of the responsibility of this situation lies with the lack of financial support and appropriate incentives to research. In Italy, both in the public and in the private sector, resources devoted to research are both fewer and less productive than in other advanced economies.
Emigration of human capital is harmful to a country in general, but emigration of college graduates can be particularly damaging given their ability in doing research and in generating technological development.

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Migration in France

In the French history there were lots of events which changed the request or the refusing of the immigration. The first was the French Revolution which made France the refuge for political or economical exiles.
After that the Industrial Revolution offered lots of work and so many people came to work in France.
From 1850‘ to nowadays migration in France can be divided into 3 periods: In the 1st one which goes from 1850 to 1945 France was the first and most important immigration country in Europe because the population declined and France needed labour force and soldiers.
During the period of the Great War a lot of colonial troups were sent to the front and the Belgian refugees were used as labour force in the Army Industry. After World War I France needed new labour force to compensate 1,3 milion deaths and requested a lot of people from the other countries.
During the crisis of 1931 migrants were used for hard labour, but some of them returned to their countries
In the world France was the second most popular destination for European immigrants after the USA. The 2nd period goes from 1945 to 1975 and is characterized by the Cicle of "Migrant Workers".
Infact, after the Second World War lots of African foreigners, but also Italian, Spanish and Portugues, moved to France to look for new jobs.
In the 1960s the number of Turkish, Yugoslav and African immigrants increased. In the 3rd period which goes from 1975 to 2010 migration changed. In the 1970s working migration decreased. From 1976 the government encouraged unsuccessfully the return of immigrants to the country of origins. People who immigrated to France were not only workers but also whole families. In the last years of the 20 century people began to move to France for other reasons. Scientists decided to move because they were looking for good jobs, gains and also because they wanted to improve their studies. The French policy was in favour of a selective immigration in which only the best people were allowed to enter France, but at the same time France debated about integration. Infact, from the 80s the debate about immigration from the Magreb contries started and France tried to integrate people for a larger social coesion.
At the same time the government tried to offer better conditions of asylum and refugee. In 1997 France created a territorial asylum for refugees after the Algerian war.
Then the government under Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin reformed the asylum law again (2003) . Processing time for asylum applications were shortened and so there was a new definition of the term ―refugee‖ and also a reorganization of the structure of the authorities involved. About irregular immigration, the government at first allowed people living in France without legal residence status to stay there and so 132000 people received legal residence status (1982).
After that period the sans-papiers occupied two churches in Paris demanding the garantee of residence permits (1996). Then a limited number of sans-papiers families whose children attend school were legalized (2006) and nowadays the Minister of the Interior, Nicolas Sarkozy has announced his purpose to increase the number of deportees.



Causes of migration in the Czech Republic

Firstly we would like to introduce shortly our republic from the point of view of migration.
1. The Czech Republic, a small country in the heart of Europe, has experienced very dramatic changes in the last twenty years.
2. After 40 years of communism our country had to face new challenges and development.
3. Although, as the Czech people didn‘t come across with many foreigners in the last several decades, they were a little afraid of the newcomers from different countries and cultures. Some of the nationalities, for example the Vietnamese, have managed to assimilate quite quickly, as they needed to make their living in Czech and do business. Some other nationalities are still felt as foreign and exotic. The goal of the Czech government now is to decrease the xenophobic moods and build bridges between the cultures living in the Czech Republic.

Ostrava – a melting pot

Our city Ostrava is located in the North-eastern part of the country and it is located in a very important and strategic position. It is the third biggest city and historically, it has always been an important transport and trade crossroad to Poland and Slovakia.
1. Mainly due to this position, Ostrava has been a melting pot of many national minorities. The second biggest reason of the large immigration waves to Ostrava was the fact that the city is located in a coal mining area and the heavy industry has always offered many job opportunities. Nowadays, it is very common to meet people with Polish, Slovak, Bulgarian but also Greek surnames.
2. After 1989 more and more foreigners decided to live in Ostrava, not only for the working reasons, but also for its friendly and calm environment. Slowly, the city is getting the new European multicultural face.

Causes of migration

Push factors
Push factors are causes of migration that force people to leave their place of birth and migrate within their country or move abroad.
The main push factors are: economical instability, changes of living standards, fast demographical increase, armed conflicts, religious and international conflicts, climate changes, environmental pollution, and racism.
Pull factors
Pull factors are conditions that attract migrants especially to western countries in Europe or rich countries.
The main pull factors: economical prosperity, high level of living, democracy, religious and political freedom, personal self-fulfilment .
National migration and its causes
This term means migration within the Czech republic. People migrate because of work or studies to the bigger cities and to Prague, where are better living conditions .

In Ostrava or other industrial cities we can find the opposite direction too. From polluted cities to villages nearby.
International migration
It is a migration from state to state because of different causes mentioned in our document (push and pull factors). This kind of migration is much more complicated because people who leave their native country must learn to live abroad, learn foreign language, respect different culture, start a new life and it is not easy to assimilate in the new country as well as it is not easy for native inhabitants. Immigrants influence demography, economy, labour-market.
Numbers Today: There are about 300 000 immigrants, 170 000 are legal mainly economical immigrants. They usually settle in Prague, Ostrava, Olomouc, Brno or industrial zones e.g. Mladá Boleslav, Plzeň, Nošovice.Illegal immigrants: the number is from 50 000 – 300 000. They usually moved here because of work.

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Push and pull factors of migration in the Czech republic
Voluntary causes of migration found in the Czech Republic:

1.Job possibility (improvement of personal qualities, people move to economically stronger cities, regions and countries), good living condition and economical situation are reasons why foreigners come to the Czech republic. Pull factor for people from the East Europe.

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Forced migration found in the Czech Republic:
1.Employement (bad economical situation, unemployment) especially small villages where young people moved to big cities, the population got old there and it is very difficult to live there.
2.Natural and other disasters (floods)- after the big floods 1997 people had to move away from their houses because their villages(Bruntál, Krnov, Ostrava, Přerov...) were devastated, destroyed or they were simply afraid to live there.

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Examples of migration from everyday life
1.Voluntary migration in our school:Example of immigration to our city and also school is an English teacher called Nathan Crighton, who met a Czech girl while living in USA and later decided to come to Czech and marry her. His decision was also supported by the fact that he had a great opportunity to get a job here.
2. Forced migration in our school:You can find a few immigrants within students of our school, such as an Iraq girl whose family moved here because of war, or a girl from Egypt who migrated because of religion views and a muslim girl from Kazachstan – her family moved here because of unemployment in their native country.
Interesting fact There is a small Czech community in Romania.It is situated in the region called Banat. It was founded in 1820 when Czech workers left for Romania to mine woods. Nowadays about 2000 people live there and they are called „Pémové―. Their community includes 6 villages.

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Comparison of migration in CZ and Romania
The Czech Republic
People migrate for
1. Money
2. Work possibilities
3. Studies
4. Family relationships
5.More often is migration within Czech republic from villages to cities (from economicaly poor regions to richer ones)
6.Recently there are no forced causes of migration (such as war, famine, diseases, natural disaster or political system).
People migrate because of
1. Unemployment
2.Poor economical situation
3.Not working political system
4.Not qualified workers
5.Low incames
6.Missing foreign investors
7. None developed tourism
8. People from Romania are often discriminated within Europe.

Causes of migration in Romania

Focused on Romania : this article is written by Dumitru Sandu Sociolog, Bucharest University.
When Romania entered EU in 2007 it brought a little increase of Romanian living abroad.
According to estimations, In 2007 more than 1,5million Romanian worked abroad. Working immigrants usually aimed for Italy – numbers of Romanian temporary migrants there are from 60 000 to 100 000.
There is also a noticeable change in temporary emigration from Romania. It seems that lots of qualified as well as non- qualified workers took a chance when borders opened. Emigration of qualified doctors and medical staff has a negative impact on the country with bad situation in health service, which can be seen on high natimortality (13,9% in 2006). On the other hand, number of non-qualified workers in other countries has increased, especially in countries who are more tolerant to illegal employing of immigrants.

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There is also quite high number of emigrants working in Spanish and Italian building industry, which caused a lack of workers in Romanian building industry, which was noticeable especially in 2006. Which means that Romanian labour market has to either make immigration from other countries easier or focus on support of Romanian emigrants who would be willing to come back.

Mass economical migration causes brain drain in Romania:is written by Elisabeta Zelinka, Assistant Professor the University of the West Timisoara, Romania, 2007
Romania suffered since the beginning, especially middle of the 1990s an alarming emigration of highly qualified specialists.
The top ranking Romanian students went to the USA, UK, Ireland, France and Germany, and found well paid employment possibilities in these host countries‘ markets. After that they decide to stay in their host country.
“Large salaries and a by far more prestigious social status constantly encourage Romanian intelligence emigration. The most notable areas of emigration study and employment in this sector are Sciences and Human Rights: Computer Sciences, Political Studies, and International Law-Human Rights. In 2006 alone, the United States provided through private job placement companies 14,742 jobs, involving summer work for Romanian students.”
Not only students but also top-ranking skilled professionals, especially academia and research specialists from all domains left the country. It cerated a labour shortage in Romania because it is very difficult to replace those positions.

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Countries where Romanian emigrants go
Working emigrants went to Israel, Turkey and Hungary (1990-1995), Germany, Italy, Spain and Western Europe in general (1996-2002) and at present since 2002, UK, Portugal, Switzerland, Ireland, Spain and Italy being assaulted.
Labour migration the most serious push factor in Romania
The most spread cause of migration is necessity of higher income for families. That is why a lot of people from Romania have left the country but migration raises labour shortage in Romania.
Romania‘s slow and difficult transition of from a communist to a capitalist economy, corroborated with the notorious corruption of the 1990s Romanian (neo-socialist) authorities, paved the way for Romania to become a primary country of origin of labour migration in the 1990s, mainly in a legal form.
170,000 persons emigrated legally, only in the first 3 years after the fall of Communism in Romania. Most of them did not return to Romania, deciding to choose their host country as their country of future residence, tempted by the much higher living standards in Western Europe.

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EU regulation written by Media Eghbal, 3 Sep 2007
High economic growth and a vast labour exodus to Western Europe have created a labour shortage in many sectors of Romanian economy. As a result, Labour shortage could have a negative impact on foreign direct investment, slowing the country's economic growth. Businesses in some sectors have difficulties in finding skilled workers, while facing rising labour costs. At the other hand the number of Romanian emigrants had to be regulated by EU in order to help Romania.
“During the 1990s the host country authorities were forced to impose certain sanctions for example, taxes were imposed on border crossings or migrants had to prove that they were in possession of a certain amount of money.”
“Apart from Finland and Sweden, all EU-15 countries made use of the transitional clause in the accession treaty and restricted the free movement of Romanian workers for up to seven years.
"Most EU-countries have introduced sector specific quotas for Romanian workers. The UK, for example, has allowed unlimited numbers of highly skilled workers and an annual quota of 19,750 blue collar workers for specific sectors."

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This issue led to serious economic problems in the country. In the first half of the decade, the unprecedented labour force emigration caused a serious deficit of skilled and unskilled work force in the Romanian society: from 1990 to 2002 employment declined alarmingly by 44%, causing 3.5 million jobs to vanish. Most of the heavy industry and infrastructure/construction industry work force vanished, these industries being vended to foreign investors. In order to tackle the labour crisis, the Romanian government is encouraging repatriation, while attracting workers from outside the EU to fill gaps in the labour market.
Netzwerk Migration in Europa e.V. Media Eghbal
http://www Romanian migration raises concerns over labour shortage Author: Media Eghbal Date published: 3 Sep 2007
ČSÚ. 2007a. Cizinci v ČR. Dostupné z: ČSÚ. 2007b. Vývoj obyvatelstva České republiky v roce 2006. Dostupné z: http://www.czso.czizincu-008
Picture: Original uploader and author was Pajast at cs.wikipedia

1 comment:

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