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Friday, June 4, 2010

Manisa, Turkey : Causes of migration [Part 1] - Contribution of the French Team, Contribution of the Turkish Team


FRENCH TEAM

This booklet contains articles written by students participating in the multilateral Comenius
project “Cross Perspectives on Exile”, and the causes of migration in each country.

Part One ("Introduction” and “The causes of the migration in France”,"The French view on Turkish migration",pages 4 to 12) has been written by the students ( Micheal Biyaga , Adrien Grillot, Etienne Veyret, Lorelei Peysson, Chloe Decret, Alexandra Dubouchet, Sophie Lesaint) from the Aristide Berges High School, under the guidance of the teachers Alain Croquelois, Martine Dupuis, Nicole Clapie, and Francoise Sainte-Rose.

Part Two (“Causes of migration in Turkey”, "Causes of Italian migration", pages 13 to 26) represents the contribution of students from Dündar Çiloglu Anadolu Lisesi (Irem Özardiç,Tugba Kalpak, ,Nurten Bayraktar,Ebru Çetin,Pinar Karsiyaka,Leyla Betül Feyiz,Fatih Yazgün,Mustafa Toygar Varli,Simge Nur Yildiz,Simay Güzel,Sedef Yildirim,Armagan Yücel Sahin,Berk Güler) coordinated by the teachers Pelin Aydin, Melih Yilmaz,Ercan Ayyildiz, Sezgi Poyraz and Selami Ari.



Part Three("Causes of migration in Romania" ,"Causes of migration in the Czech
Republic",pages 27 to 32) has been written by the students from the National College
"Constantin Carabella" (Irini Iordanescu, Claudia Michalescu, Roxana Dobre, Alina Trandafir,
Vlad Butucea, Teodor Uta),coordinated by the teachers Gabriela Tache, Emilia Elena Lixandru.

Part Four("Migration in Italy", "Migration in France", pages 33 to 36 ) has been written by the students from the "Galileo Galilei" Scientific High School (Giusy Sarli, Maddalena Lauria, Angela Marino, Flavia Trezza, Massimiliano Bochicchio, Antonio Cillis),coordinated by the
teachers Elisabetta Grimaldi, Grazia Leoci.

Part Five (“Causes of migration in The Czech Republic", "Causes of migration in
Romania”, pages 37 to 44) has been written by the students (Denis Kubajura, Vojtech Lampart , David Horvath, Katerina Koutnikova, Zuzana Lusková, Lenka Žárská, Tereza Chorovská ) from the Hladnov Gymnasium, under the guidance of Mgr. Martina Baseggio, Petra Janasová, Jana Kondziolková .



* The project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.





Contents

Introduction
Causes of the Migrations in France
French view on Turkish migration
Causes of migration in Turkey
Causes of Itaian migration
Causes of migration in Romania
Causes of migration in the Czech Republic
Migration in Italy
Migration in France
Causes of migration in the Czech Republic
Causes of migration in Romania





Cross perspectives on exile


French contribution

INTRODUCTION

General causes of migration

The question of the international migrations, with his complex causes and demographic, social, economic, political consequences, took place in front scene of the national and international diaries and particularly in Europe.
We find a limited number of causes of migration: political, economic, social, cultural. These causes cross themselves and strengthen.
Those differ according to the periods from the history, the countries of starting or areas of reception.
If a person leaves its country, his family, his close relations, its culture, it is not often only for a single reason.

The main factors are:
- Economics: low economic growth, very uneven distribution of incomes, insufficient standard of living, too much unemployment. But also, charm for countries needing workforce, brain drain looking for better working conditions and payment. We also observe financial migrations that are flights towards tax havens.
-> Migratory bounce: the positive evolution of a developing country can, at first, strengthen the international migrations, because certain persons acquire financial means to immigrate and do not find a rather satisfactory situation in their country. But this phenomenon decreases later.

- Demographics: excess of population, population density of young generations; but also desire of family entry and settlement, demographic deficit of the host country

- Politics: war, ethnic purge, violation of human rights, persecutions, low level of governance…

- Climatic / geographical: earthquake, tidal wave, desertification, global warming, degradation of the environment

- Traditional nomadism: for example the Roma (gypsies....)

- Individual choices: mixed marriage, charm for a country, its climate, its culture...

- Globalization:
Today the main part of the population‘s movements is South / South. The countries of the South plead with the big international Institutions for the right to migrate, the softening of visas regimes, the respect for human rights for their national left abroad and which supply them transfers of high funds (337 billion dollars in 2007 against approximately 60 billion public aids to the development).



In Europe

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Due to globalization of exchanges, to persistence of colonial links, of the attractively of Europe,
it attracts migratory flows from East to west and from south to north. Those flows diversify with
the end of communism in the east, and with the political destabilization of several regions in south.
Legend from top to down
1) areas of political emigrations
5)Flows of brain-drain
2)Conflicts and refugees in neighboring countries
6) new economic emigration post communist
3)Main countries of immigration of nationals
7)Main area of workers mobility
who were before in East bloc
8)Main area of economic migration
4)Flows of economic emigration of workers
9)New area of economic emigration post communism



France
The causes of the migrations in France

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In the history of migration (first brochure- see the maps) we already spoke about causes
Historically: The causes are underlined and in italics.
From 1750, communications become easier and intensified economic exchanges; People are then concerned by the movements: beggars, traders, diplomats, students, agents of king, pilgrims, and soldiers, exiles avoiding the political or religious persecutions intersect on the roads of the kingdom.

From the revolution of 1789, a legally homogeneous national space appears. In the mid-nineteenth century, the number of seasonal migrants in the rural area is estimated to 800 000, from the other villages or the French regions but also from the neighboring countries such as Flanders or Piedmont. The city attracts also especially Paris which has 37 000 foreigners in 1832 and 184 000 in 1847 including 1/3 of German, arriving in groups and carrying specialized activities (glassworkers, salesmen of statues Italian, shoemakers and German tailors ) . This immigration is mostly due to economic reasons.

Before 1939:
By the late nineteenth century, France was hit by a substantial demographic decline: seven times between 1891 and 1911, the number of deaths was higher than births. France becomes the country of only son, whom they protect, which are based on projects of social ascent of the family. And because 15% of children born in 1900 died within a year! The France must then resort to hiring foreign labor to offset the aging population and thus becomes a major immigration country, while all its neighbors migrate to destinations like the United States, Canada, the South America or Australia. In 1911, 1.1 million foreigners live in France. The immigration of unskilled workers came entirely from other European countries such as Belgium, Italy, Spain and Poland. The presence of these aliens has prompted many xenophobic reactions, especially against Italian immigrants.
Once again after the First World War, France has need of manpower to offset the 1.3 million deaths. The immigrants come not only from other European countries (mainly Poland, Russia and Italy) but also of Turkey.

Second part of the twentieth century:
It was the same thing after the Second World War; France is experiencing a new wave of immigration. The "economic miracle" of the post-war requires the arrival of immigrant workers. It is first come in the 1950s the Spanish‘s, who will replace gradually the Italians and will be followed in the 1960s by the Portuguese.
From 1962 to 1982 the number of immigrants in France has been increasing, from 3 million in 1962 to exceed 4 million in 1982.France accepts familial migration. This increase is due to significant turnover brought by the forms of legal immigration.


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The Portuguese took over from the early 1960s. The Portuguese presence in France were among 20 000 in 1959 and 700 000 in the early 70s, they will still be 600 000 in 1990. Portuguese migration consists of low-skilled workers fleeing poverty, but also deserter‘s colonial wars and political opponents of the regime of Salazar. Like their predecessors from Italy and Spain, many men work in construction, but also in industry, while women find work in the field of personal services.

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(Possible to watch a film here: http://www.histoireimmigration.fr/main.php?period=5&sous_sequence=1)

France has welcomed immigrants hesitating between the openings and closing its borders. This uncertainty has led to periods of complete freedom, for example, between 1960 and 1970, alternating with periods of increased control of its borders, for example, since 1974. During the 30 or 40th years past, the immigration is motivated by a great despair in his country that characterizes the dream of Europe sometimes overlooked by those populations. This is more a labor migration but to despair. In addition, the current immigration tries other ways to stay in Europe including the use of asylum. But asylum seekers are now often rejected and often, they become illegal.
Then with the collapse of Eastern Bloc, immigration from the Eastern Europe is experiencing renewed vigor.
14/01/2010 Asylum seekers in Paris: "They were outside,it was -2 ° C Boulevard Ney in Paris, near the administrative center for the treatment of asylum seekers have turned to camp wild in winter.




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This document shows the origin of the immigrants in France. We can see the migratory couple. The great majority of the immigrants coming from the former countries of the French colonization, As well as immigrants' presence of nearness (Portugal for example) come for economic and political reasons (regime of Salazar).

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The Turkey‘s migratory field includes geographical, linguistically and cultural affinities. Turkey was mainly an emigration country to Europe but it‘s also become an immigration and transit country.

A) Emigration

The most important emigration flows in Turkey are oriented to Western and Northern Europe, mainly Germany, Austria, France, Belgium and Switzerland. With its 3 million immigrants has become the first uneuropean emigration country towards Europe.
This transnational Turkish community is born in the 2nd half part of the 20th century from a migratory field appeared with a young nation state. Before and after the First World War the German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Empires were allies. The Turkish are come since 1959 to participate to Germany’s reconstruction. They also came to France to serve as work force. They stayed and the community has grown up because of the familial reunion. There are 5 million of Turkish people over the 5 continents.90 % of them live in Europe and the half in Germany.
In 50 years, those migrants have built a lot of economic, social and political networks by keeping their origins and a link with their country. They are an important economical power with 10,000 companies built in Germany by Turkish immigrants. They get involved in the political life of their adoption country but they keep their identity by using Medias to get news from Turkey in real time.
This emigration is used to send money to Turkey. The Turkish keep a link with Turkey but also with their born country because they can get the double nationality.

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When the doors of Europe are closed to immigration after the oil crisis and the ensuing crisis, the Turkish emigration shows radical changes. The rotation stops. Until 1974 almost one million Turkish citizens had taken the path of Europe, there was a back and forth permanent. Stopping immigration causes the sedentary population from Turkey in countries where it was causing a change in population structure.

B) Immigration and transit

The immigration in Turkey is more and more important. Its borders adjoin many conflicts household: Turk-Syrian dispute, Russian-Georgian crisis, adjar separatism (Muslims of Georgia), big dams of the Tiger and the Euphrates‘s waters, the Cyprian, Kurdish, Armenian questions. Its linguistic and cultural nearness with some ex-soviet republics of Central Asia (as Turkmenistan) is a source of transit migrations and neighbourhood for refugees, merchants or workers, when these don‘t leave Turkey by migrating in Kazakhstan and living in the Russian world. Migrants from Iran, Iraq, Ukraine, Russia, Moldavia, and ex-Yugoslavia but also from the Maghreb and the African countries enter illegally Turkey. It‘s then a transit migration.
Today, Turkey, itself country of emigration, became a country of transit important for the migrations (immigrants or not) in the direction of Europe. At first, because of its geographical position which establishes (constitutes) a border - and thus a passage between the East and the West. Then new causes appeared:
-Regional conflicts ( ex-Yugoslavia, the Caucasus) and international (Palestine, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq) make move thousands of persons who, looking for more safety, leave their homes to migrate to the nearby countries.
-economic situation of its nearby countries which are in such a poverty as the inhabitants migrate to find some work in another country and so have a better life.( GNP per capita ( PNB par habitant) of Afghanistan 220$,Pakistan 470$, Iran 1760$; Turkey 10 479$)

-Turkey is also a bridge between East and west in the cultural domain ( laic country) but also economic because of its numerous links with Europe

-Politics of visas: the non-existence of Turkish visas of entrance or transit for the nationals of certain countries can remind that these measures play a role in irregular migrations in transit.
But the country doesn‘t see itself as a land of immigration and has not built real politics on this subject yet: the illegal immigrant workers would be among 1,5 millions in 2008, employed on the black, particularly on domestic work, building and farming.
At the end of the years eighty, the migratory balance becomes again positive, because of the migrations of return, but also an immigration of refugees and immigrant workers. The number of detainees for breaches of the law Turkish concerning the entrance(entry), the exit(release) or the stay in Turkey knew a strong increase, in particular these last 2 years when their number bordered 100 000.
In these figures, the part of the immigrants and that of the emigrants is approximately the same.

Turkey is primarily a place of passage to Western Europe for Eastern peoples, Kurds, Pakistanis, Indians or Chinese and even African. The flows have recently taken a considerable extent (500 000 people in 2000 according to the EU), they are largely controlled by the Turkish mafia, in relations with its Albanian and Italian counterparts, which benefits greatly. "One million illegal immigrants live in Turkey according to government estimates. Some - Moldovans, Ukrainians, Romanians and Bulgarians - work "black" and go home. But many others see in this country the best gateway to paradise "West: Highway by Morocco and Gibraltar is becoming more difficult, too often deadly. "(Marc Semo, Libération, June 21, 2002)
A little less than 100 000 illegal immigrants were arrested in 2001. Turkey has no specific legislation sanctioning illegal immigration. The Turkish authorities have neither the funds to build detention centers, or the means to return home nationals who are not from neighboring countries.

C- Internal migrations

Internal migration has had a great impact on Turkey's population dynamics for decades.. According to the 2000 population census, nearly 28% percent of the population was born in a different province that they now reside in. This ratio goes up to 62% for Istanbul, a major province that has drawn migrants for years .Although, it is claimed in numerous studies that rural-urban migration that centers on a few urban . The emphasis on industrialization, mechanization and relatively slow growth of agricultural production, the shortage of new land to cultivate, and the construction of a road network connecting major cities with their hinterland and rural communities have contributed this movement increased. This concern particularly Istanbul: it population was multiplied by ten between 1945 and 1993. It borders 20 millions today and increases of 23 persons every hour, of a village of 500 inhabitant every day . Istanbul became an immigration megalopolis situated in the tiny part of Turkey .

An example of immigration an internal migration: Kurdish populated area and travel.

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This map shows the flow of Kurds ; traditionally they use to live in the mountains regions of South Caucasus, they are shared between 4 States : Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. Because of conflicts( Irak for example) they escaped to Turkey . Much of the Kurds (perhaps half the 12 million Kurds) has been integrated into the Turkish nation. Due to rural exodus, Istanbul is now the largest city with its two million inhabitants belonging to this community. They also emigrates to other country mainly for same reasons ( mostly economics).

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Bibliography
Atlas mondial des migrations - Ed. Autrement, 2009
Bozarslan, Hamit – „Le brasier oublié du Moyen-Orient‖, Ed. Autrement, 2009
Immigrés et étrangers - Observatoire des inégalités, Mars 2009
La France au pluriel - Les Cahiers Français n° 352, 2009
Les routes de l'humanité – Ed. Le Monde, revue hors série, 2008/2009
Migratins, métissage, une France autrement - Le Mook, Ed. Autrement, 2008
Noiriel, Gérard – „Immigration, antisémitisme et racisme en France: discours publics, humiliations
privées‖, Ed. Hachette, 2009
Petit guide pour comprendre les migrations internationales - La Cimade, 2009
Population et Société, n°452 – INED, 2009
http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/cartotheque/diaspora-turque-monde-2006.shtml
http://www.rue89.com/2010/01/14/centre-dasile-a-paris-ils-etaient-dehors-il-faisait-2-c-133742
http://www.canalacademie.com/L-immigration.html





TURKISH TEAM


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WHAT CAUSES MIGRATION ?
A)NATURAL CAUSES
-Erosion
-Draught
-Earthquakes
-Flood-Volcanoes
-Landslide
B)SOCIAL CAUSES
-Education
-Medical Care
-Vendetta
-Religious Beliefs
-Inheritance
C)POLITICAL CAUSES
-Wars
-Exchange
-Inner disorders
D)ECONOMICAL CAUSES
-Job facilities
-The existence of natural resources
-Lower income in rural areas
-The rapid increase of population
-Employment Problem

TYPES OF MIGRATION IN TURKEY
A) Internal migrations
1 -Seasonal-temporary
2 - Permenant Internal migration Internal migration
B)External migrations

THE CAUSES OF INTERNAL MIGRATION
A)Temporary Migration in Turkey
Some families living in countryside migrate temporarily to big cities where agriculture is main industry.and another causes are tourism and stockbreeding.
B)Permenant Migration in Turkey
In TURKEY ,the migration from rural areas to cities due to industrialization process is one of the most important causes of migration . The causes for this type of migration in Turkey can be classified as push, pull forces.

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a-Push forces
• Not enough jobs
• Few opportunities
• "Primitive" conditions
• Desertification
• Famine/drought
• Political fear/persecution
• Poor medical care
• Loss of wealth
• Natural Disasters
• Death threats
• Pollution
• Poor housing
• Landlords
• Discrimination
b-Pull forces
• Job opportunities
• Better living conditions
• Political and/or religious freedom
• Enjoyment
• Education
• Better medical care
• Security
• Family links
• Industry
• Better chances of finding courtship

CHANGES IN RURAL AREAS
It is known that, the structure of rural areas changed after the Second World War and parallel to these changes migration to cities increased and urbanization process accelerated. Starting from 1950s, migration has shapped the population distribution in Turkey ,implying a dramatic population shift between villages and cities. The most important and largest transformations in the rural area accomplished by the small-scale producers. The role of the relation between the villagers (small producers) and the usurer-merchant in land loss mechanism is well known. Therefore only a small fraction of small and medium farmers, who tried to adapt to modern agriculture by taking loans, became a big farmer whereas the other big fraction lost their lands. Those, who lost their lands total became either agricultural labours or migrated to urban areas.
The immense of socio economic differences between regions shape inter-regional migration.The dynamics of migration differ across regions as each region has its unique geographical and socio ecinomic structure.However despite these differences,there are common economic and social factors that affect internal migration. Gender differences also have an important role in determining internal migration patterns,which is apparent when we consider the differences in reasons for migration between different genders.Although education levels have increased significantly for females over the last decade,marriage and dependent migration stil overwhelm other relevant factors such as job seeking.

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In the later period rural to urban migration significantly slowed and urban to urban migration has increased .During the 1965-1970 period , the population growth in Turkey was %2,5 whereas the urbanization rate was % 6,03 . There rates have descreased to % 1,62 and % 4,67 consecutively in 2000 and moreover,the share of urban population (where urban refers to areas with population of 20.000or more ) has reached % 64,9 in 2000.

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In this regard,the causes of internal migration in Turkey are :
-The rapid growth of the population in the rural areas.
-The decrease of the agricultural areas by means of in heritance.
-The unemployment resulted from agricultural mechanization.
-Decline of the fertile (productive) agricultural areas.
-The feudal system in some regions.
-The security problems caused by blood feud and terrorism.
-The attraction of the cities in point of work,education and health care services.
-The desire of the families to provide a beter future to their children.
-Feeling safer in cities.
-Searching for social guarantee.
-Development of the means of mass communication and transportation .
-Incapability of the traditional and indvidual production to compete with the bigger finance.
-Developed industry in the cities.
-The negative affects of the land shapes and the climate.
-Limited work opportunities.
-The inadequency of education and infrastructure.

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EXTERNAL MIGRATION
A)IMMIGRATION TO TURKEY
Due to the geopolitical importance of Turkey, she has been receiving migration from Caucasia, The Middle East,Balkans and The Middle Asia(Azerbaijan,Turkmenistan etc.)

After the foundation of Republic of Turkey
  • Lausanne Peace Agreement ( 24 July 1923 ) Population Exchange Agreement ( 30 January 1923 )
Even after the long period of war was over and the new Republic of Turkey had been internationally recognised in the Lausanne Peace Treaty,migration movements between the Balkans and Anatolia continued.The Treaty of Lausanne included a joint agreement on a population exchange between Turkey and Greece.In accordance with the Treaty,Turkey accepted 500.000 Turks from Greece to Turkey and Greece accepted nearly 2 million ethnic Greeks from Central Anatolia and Black Sea region to Greece. By special arrangeement,Greeks living in İstanbul and Turks living in the Western Thrace were excluded from the agreement.
  • 1925-1950(From Bulgaria and Yugoslavia)
  • Recent Immigration from the Balkans ( 1989 – 1994 ) The most recent immigration influx was that of Bulgarian Turks .In 1989 an estimated 320.000 Bulgarian Turks fled to Turkey to escape a compaign of forced assimilation.
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  • Immigration from Iran and other Asian countries in and after1994 In 1994 the government claimed that as many as 2 million Iranians were living in Turkey.Turkey is one of the few countries that Iranians many enter without first obtaining a visa; the ease of travel from Iran to Turkey encourages many Iranians to visit Turkey as tourists, or touse Turkey as a way station to obtain visas fort he countries of Europe and North America
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IRREGULAR MIGRATION
Due to its geo-political location, Turkey lies on a major migration route with a significant number of irregular immigrants coming from the East trying to cross Turkey towards the wealthy Europe. Approximately 500,000 migrants were apprehended in Turkey between 2000 and 2006.Irregular migration flows to Turkey can be divided into three main groups.The first involves migrants coming from Ukraine or Moldova, who come to Turkey to find better living standards and work. Many of these migrants are employed by Turkish farmers, construction companies, and families (as domestic workers). The second group of irregular migrants involves those mainly coming from the Middle East (mostly Iranian and Iraqis) and Asia (mostly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan). These migrant often consider Turkey as a transit zone while they try to enter Europe. The third group of irregular migrants includes the rejected asylum seekers, who do not wish to return home and look for possible employment opportunities to be able to migrate to another country.
NON-EUROPEAN REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS
After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, there was a significant wave of Iranian refugees who were seeking for safety place. A second and third wave of refugees emerged in 1988 and 1991, this time from neighbouring Iraq. In August 1988, Turkey opened its borders to more than 50,000 Kurdish refugees after Iraqi troops had launched a massive offensive against Kurdish fighters in Northern Iraq. At the beginning of the 1991 Gulf War, approximately 60,000 foreign workers fled Iraq via Turkey. In April 1991, some 700,000 to 850,000 Kurds gathered at the Turkish-Iraqi borders seeking shelter from attacks by the Iraqi army. The majority of Kurdish refugees left Turkey after a special safety zone had been declared in Northern Iraq, or after they had been given the possibility to resettle in a third country.AndSmaller refugee groups have been arriving from countries such as Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Afghanistan since the early 1990s.

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EMIGRATION FROM TURKEY



A) LABOUR EMIGRATION TO WESTERN EUROPE ( 1960 )

Turkey became involved in the post Second World War European labour migration process when it signed a bilateral agreement on labour recruitment with the Federel Republic of Germany in October 1961.Further agreements were reached with Austria ,Belgium and the Netherlands in 1964 with France in 1965 and with Sweden in 1967.Faced with a rapidy growing population ,the Turkish authorities encouraged the emigration of workers to Western Europe in order to ease pressure on the national labour market.
In 1973 – 74 , however,official labour recruitment stopped due to a change in policy that was brought about by the international oil crisis and its economic repercussions.Western European countries houlted the recruitment of non-EC labour migronts , but granted those already working and living in their territories permenant residence permits and the right to family reunification. Despite the official stop in labour recruitment ,migration flows from Turkey to Western Europa changed rather than ceased.This was partly due to the lasting process of family reunification. And refugee movements emerged in the 1980s and 1990s .

B) LABOUR EMIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA
In the late 1960s,The Turkish Government , under the pressure of the unemployment problem,quickly went into a search for a new market to sustain the labour exporting process at a time when the doors of Europe were being closed to immigrant workers.Indeed,the Turkish emigration to Australia started in these circumtances .The signing of a migration agreement with Austuralia in 1967 was a new step undertaken to maintain the continuity of emigration.


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C)LABOUR EMIGRATION TO‟ MENA‟ COUNTRIES (Middle East&North Africa)
In the 1980s,Turkey maintained a high level of male labour emigration to MENA countries ,mainly to Saudi Arabia , Libya and Iraq.Turkey‘s search for new receiving countries corresponded with the demand for labour force in these countries .The dramatic upsurge of oil prices after 1973 ,and the accompanying increase in the income levels of the oil-exporting Gulf States with very small populations boosted demand for labour .The result was a large influx of contract workers from other developing countries.Migration from Turkey to Arab countries occured with in this broader context.
D)LABOUR EMIGRATION TO „CIS‟ COUNTRIES
These countries are: Russia,Ukraine,Kazakhstan,Belarus,Azerbaijan,Uzbekistan,Turkmenistan, Georgia,Armenia,Tajikistan,Kyrgyzstan,Moldova.
The last phase of Turkish emigration started with the flows of relatively small groups of worker to the CIS countries.After the collapse of the former Soviet Union,some of the newly emerging states in the region launched reconsrustion programs.
Turkish workers to the CIS countries were migrants who usually work for the key – turn Project of the Turkish companies operating in the region.
The labour movement to the Middle East and North Africa was very much different from the migratory movements to Western European countries. It was always exclusively a temporary movement of male workers . Their duration of stay was determined by the completion period of the work , where these workers were usually employed for a period of the two years . The return rate of these workers were very high , because only a small proportion of them could be hired by the some firm for a new Project buy a new firm.

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF TURKISH MIGRANTS ABROAD
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E)BRAIN DRAIN FROM TURKEY
Turkey is among the top ten sending contries in term of the number of students studying in US higher education institutions.
The causes of Brain Drain :
-The industrialized countries pay high salaries to form qualified employment.
-The easy employment conditions and opportunities to develop.
-The diffulculty in finding suitable job in country in which they live.


CAUSES OF ITALIAN MIGRATION
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The causes for the mass immigration of the Italians were many.
-Between 1870-1900 the standart of of living became worse in the whole Italy,especially on the countryside.
Poverty,overpopulation all spurred Italian emigration.Beginning in the 1870s,Italian birthrates rose and death rates fell.Population pressure became severe,especially in II. Mezzogiorna,the southern and poorest provinces of Italy.In the 1900s the illiteracy rate in southern Italy was 70%,ten times the rate in England,France or Germany.The Italian government was dominated by northernes,and southerners were forced to pay high taxes and tarrifs on northern industrial goods.
-Diseases and starvation were the main causes of emigration.Food had became very expensive for Italians.Many peasant families spent about 75% of their Money on food.Despite the high cost,this food didn‘t contain enough nutrition to sustain a person.
-In the North,the population suffered from pellagra,a disease which often resulted in insanity and death,where as in the South,fatal malaria plagued the nation‘s residents.At first malaria was only seen in the coastal areas,but this changed because deforestation erosion and flooding spreaded the malaria.It was unbeliavable but 2 million Italians died in each year.
-The agricultural system of Italy was not modernised and there was little hope to improve it.Another important factor in the emigration of the Italians was the time Italian agricultural crisis that Italy suffered in the 1880s.During this time Italian agriculture was hurt by the increasing amount of products from America that invoded Italian markets.The price of wheat and other products fell,and unemployment increased because landowners and peasants no longer profitably trade.Many Northern Italians who suffered from the crisis had to emigrate as there wasn‘t any alternative.In the 1890s many southern Italians also started to emigrate due to economic troubles.
-Also great numbers of Italian emigrants had a lack of democracy and a low literacy rate(few Italians had the right to vote).
-The transportation by steamships and cheap railroads improved.As the journey became easier,few people hesitated to leave the country where they had born.
-Southerns also suffered from a scarcity of cultivatable land,soil erosion and deforestration,on a lack of coal and iron needed by industry.
-Unlike the Irish Catholics,southern Italians suffered from exploitation by people of the same nationality and religion.Rather than leading to group solidarity,this situation led to a reliance on family,kin and village tres.Life in the South revolved around the family and the rules of family behaviour and responsibility.
-Natural disasters rocked southern Italy during the early 20th century.Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried a town near Naples.Then Mount Etna erupted.In 1908 an earthquake and tidal wave swept through the strait of Messina between Sicily and the Italian mainland.More than 100.000 people died in the city of Messina alone.
10-The Italians had been having the problem of owning their own land,most landlords had control of land.These landlords would charge high rent for the Italians that lived in their houses.Many Italians were working for low wages;they were treated poorly.In 1870 to 1900 production of food stuffs except for fresh fruit,tomatoes and vegetables slawed,this malnutrition spread through out Italy.
ITALIAN EMMIGRATION TO ;
ARGENTINA
It began in the 19th century after Argentina won its indipendence from Spain.
Italy had economic problems caused by the unification of the Italian states into one nation.The country was poar,unemployment was one of the main problem,certain areas witnessed overpopulation and Italy was subject to significant political turmoil.Italians saw a chance to build for themselves a brand new life in Argentina.
The Argentine government wanted to populate the new lands they acquired from the wars and they needed a labour force for its growing industrial and agricultural economy.So the Argentine government encouraged and promoted European immigration.
BRAZIL
Brazil was in need of workers to embrace the vast coffee plantations and Italian immigrants became a main source of manpower for its agriculture and industry.
NEW ZEALAND
A small migrotary influx of Italians immigrants to New Zealand first began in the late 19th century as; as a result of the poor living conditions in the newly United Kingdom of Italy.
UNITED STATES
Most of the immigrants coming to America tried to escape the poor economic conditions of their native regions and they came in search of the ―American Dream‘
THE PRE WORLD WAR 1 YEARS: 1900 to 1914
During this period, Italy was very young, mostly rural non industrialized country. This new nation faced many problems. A large debt combined with almost no industry or transportation facilities few naturel resources, extreme poverty, a high illitracy rate, and sharp tax structure created substantial burdens for the Italian people. Regionalism ran rampant through the country and very few people have the right to vote. The gap in income increased as the
North grew richer and the South fell deeper and deeper into poverty. Those that wish for a change saw emigration as the only possible solution to their problems .
THE INTER WAR YEARS : 1918 to 1938
Because of world war one, Italy was plunged into deep political and social crises. Veterans returning from the war, desperate and hungry peasants thousand of unemployed workers and a frightened middle class helped to make Italy a very unsettled nation. Extreme nationalist from the Socialist and new populer political parties advocated for territorial expansion, while workers strikes and the constant treat of revolution added to the palpable sense of unease.
This constant tension was a key factor in the rise to power of the dictator. Benito Mussalini, a farmer revolutionary socialist who imposed a totalitarian regime, destroyed civil liberties and outlawed all other political parties
His foreign policy, based on agression and expansion, ultimately lead to the allience between Italy and Hitler‘s Germany and later to World War II. All of these factors lead to thousands of citiziens to seek a beter life elsewhere , either in Europe , South America or the United States.

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CANADA
A substanial influx of Italian immigrants come to Canada in larger numbers in 1880-1914 for the first time.These were largely peasants from the poorer southern partion of Italy who escaped from the extreme poverty and tried to increase and develop their economic conditions just to service.
During the 1920s and 1930s immigration restrictions and regulations encouraged by racialist and xenophobic nations in Canadian public opinion and politics limited South European,hence Italian immigration.At the same time,fascist government policy in Italy enacted law in 1924 and 1929 to impede Italian emigration.These legal changes and effects of the depression halted Italian immigration to Canada until after the Second World War.
Between 1951-1961 new Italian immigrants enter Canada in record numbers to help fuel Canada‘s postwar economic boom.After 1945 when Canada‘s heavy industry,constructions and manufactoring sectors required labour so Canada reopened its border.
AUSTRALIA
Italians arrived in Australia most prominently in the decades immediately following the Second World War.
SWITZERLAND
Italian immigrants reached the country starting in the late 19th century,most of whom eventually came back to Italy after the rise of Italian Fascism.
FRANCE
France, whose development was earlier required to support its industrial development and colonial labor.The first wave of Italian emigration began in the late nineteenth century. After the first world war, a new wave is comprised of migrants driven by poverty and political refugees. The last wave moves in the fifties and sixties.
VENEZUELA
Many of them came to help build major government public works projects; these workers effectively undermined the role of domestic labor and weakened the position of the then-underground labor uni
INTERNAL MIGRATION
Internal migration in Italy was very important during the 1960‘s, when a
considerable number of people were leaving the southern regions in favour
of the northern (more developed) regions. People from rural regions in the south were moving pulled by a great labour demand coming from the big industries in the north. The excess of labour supply in the agricultural sector played also an important role as a push factor. The big wave of migrants from South to North continued for twenty years . Internal migration are high during the 1950s and 1960s, they are essentially of two types:
-The movement of rural youth to cities for reasons of study.
-The move to the industrial cities of the north-west by young boys with a low level of education. Women migrate in a second time following the principle of family reunification.
This important migration wave started to loose strength during the 1970‘s due to the big industries crisis and the consequent fall in labour demand in the northern regions and became negligible during the 1980‘s till all the first half of 1990‘s.
After a long break that lasted for more than two decades, internal migration flows started to grow again in 1996. In 1998 migration from the South reached 129,000, a level that had not been reached since 1974.The cause of rising internal migration again was the scarce labour mobility during the same period affected Italy.

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Bibliography
THE EFFECTS OF MIGRATION ON URBAN- Sevinç Bahar YENİGÜL,Gazi Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Çevre Bilimleri Anabilim Dalı ,06570,Ankara, TÜRKİYE,
Department of Agricultural Economics, Ataturk University, Erzurum – Turkey
The causes and results of internal migration from rural areas
MEB yayınları Ortaöğretim Coğrafya 10.sınıf ders kitabı
MEB yayınları Ortaöğretim Sosyoloji ders kitabı-Elif Ekici
www.migrationinformation.org
www.bilimarastirmavakfi.org(Turkiye_ve_Balkanlar)
http://www.focus-migration.de/Turkey.1234.0.html?&L=1
http://www.ecomod.org/files/papers/749.pdf
PATTERNS OF ITALIAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES Frank J. Cavaioli
Farmingdale State College, SUNY
www.fieri.it
Italian Migration ,Daniela Del Boca University of Turin, NYU,CHILD and IZA Bonn
Alessandra Venturini University of Turin, CHILD and IZA Bonn
www.lotsofessays.com
http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/italian_immigration.cfm
http://www.deborahmillemaci.com/Ita-Genealogy2.html








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