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Saturday, February 13, 2010

Targoviste, Romania : Migration in Turkey - Contribution of the Turkish Team

CHRONOLOGICAL TURKISH MIGRATIONS


First of May 1923 and Afterwards

(The migration of Exchange between Greece and Turkey)


Reason: The exchange agreement between the two countries signed in Lausanne on 30 January 1923.

Exchange migrations occurred between Greeks in Turkey and Turks in Greece by the agreements made with Greece after the Independence War. According to Lausanne Treaty (Exchange Article), after the Independence War, many people immigrated to Turkey (384.000 people, between 1923 -1933).



1925-1989 (The emigration from Bulgaria to Turkey)

The agreements between the two countries, the system change in Bulgaria, the encouragement of Turkey for the Turks in Balcans to immigrate to Anatolia in the first years of Turkish Republic, and the oppression before 1989 are the reasons of the emigration from Bulgaria to Turkey.
From Bulgaria, 272.971 people immigrated between 1934 and 1960. In 1951 and 1952, Bulgarians sent 154.385 Turkish citizens to Edirne. Bulgaria prepared new immigration plans for these Turks. According to this, Turks who have close relatives in Turkey could immigrate to Turkey. In 1970 immigration to Turkey started. Between 1960 -1970, free immigrant number is 13.125. In spite of the massive immigration, there are still over 1 million Turks in Bulgaria now.




1925-1968 (The emigration from Yugoslavia)


Between 1908 and 1923, 300.000 people; between 1923 -1933, 108.179 Turks immigrated to Turkey. After the regime change immigration movements continued. Between 1934 -1960, 160.922 people settled in Turkey. Between 1960 -1970, 43.753 free immigrants came.


Other Migrations to Turkey at the Time of Republic

Because of so many different reasons (war, ethnic oppression, economic problems, agreements between countries, etc.), from so many different countries (Georgia, Iraq, Syria, Romania, China, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, etc.) people, most of whom were migrated Turks, returned to the homeland.

Eastern Turkistan: Eastern Turkistan, which is ruled by China now, is raged many times because of its mines. The people here started to migrate. In 1917,200000 people went to Tibet, then to India in 1940. Shortly, between 1934 -1960, 2128 immigrant came from Eastern Turkistan, and between 1960 – 1970, 169 people came.

Cyprus: With the Treaty of Lausanne, the island was given to the English, immigration accelerated and 24.000 people came to Turkey.

Romania: According to the census in 1930, 176.931 Turks and Tartars, 105.750 Gagauz and Orthodox Turks were living in Romania. Most of them were in Bessarabia and Dobrudja. In the 1930s, according to the treaty between Romania and Turkey, 117.095 Turks and Tatars migrated to Turkey. During the World War II, 4201 people immigrated, too.

The census in 1992 revealed that the population of Turks was 54.181. The reason of the less migration from Romania was that a more free surrounding and cultural rights that were given to Turks.

With the collapse of the eastern bloc, the type of the migration changed in Romania. The Romanians started to migrate to Turkey. The reason of migrations of Romanian people to Turkey was to work and trade. Romanian people work with permission or without permission on textile industry, tourism, housework, etc. The reason of choosing Turkey is the easy transport and no required visa.



Emigrations of Employee from Turkey to Europe (1960 and then)

After the World War II, European Countries did not have enough work forces to realize their attempts for development and re-build the European economy after war. Therefore, lot of workers started to go abroad, especially to Germany after the 1950s. The request of this immigration started from Germany and spread over all of the developed European countries.

Today, there are Turkish workers in France, Belgium, Holland, England, Sweden, the USA, Australia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the Middle Eastern countries. The Turkish population abroad has surpassed 4 million people.

After 1970, immigrations of employee took place to work in the construction industry, to Eastern countries such as Libya, Saudi Arabia as well.


1950 and then migrations in Turkey

Until 1950s, 75 per cent of Turkish people were living in villages, 25 per cent were living in cities. Since that time a rapid movement of migration has started and recently this rate has changed to 71 per cent of the population live in cities, 29 per cent live in villages. The development of agriculture and the necessity of labour force are the main reasons of the rural exodus.

With the beginning of 1950s, the migration from rural areas to urban areas started and advanced because of the economic and social changes in the rural areas of the country. As a result of the technological modernization of the agriculture, changing of the land ownership regime, having no land or monopoly of the land ownership and development of transportation conditions the rural people began to move to urban areas. Therefore, the internal immigrations of 1950-1960s appeared.

The internal migration 1980-1990s in Turkey from the east and the south-east of Turkey got bigger and bigger because of their economic situation.

Bibliography

KÜLTÜR ARAŞTIRMALARI DERNEĞİ VE IŞIK ÜNİVERSİTESİ ULUSLARARASI İLİŞKİLER BÖLÜMÜ

MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI, ORTAÖĞRETİM KURUMLARI 10. SINIF COĞRAFYA DERS KİTABI

TÜRKİYE İSTATİSTİK KURUMU

PROF. DR. HAYATİ DOĞANAY, TÜRKİYE BEŞERİ VE EKONOMİK COĞRAFYASI

BALKAN TÜRKLERİ, ASAM YAYINLARI, Ankara 2003, s.185

http://www.bilimarastirmavakfi.org/Turkiye_ve_Balkanlar/Turkiye_ve_Balkanlar_04.html

http//www.elele.gen.tr/dis_iliskiler/turk_dunyasi/makedonya.html

http://www.belgeselivideo.com/belgeseli.asp?etiket=göç

http://www.girift.com/ezber-bozan-belgesel-almanyada-turk-izleri/

http://cografiegitim.blogcu.com/turkiyede-gocler/3011878

http://www.webhatti.com/cografya/320087-turkiyede-ic-ve-dis-gocler.html

http://www.netteyim.net/haber/Yasam/iste_turkiyenin_40_yillik_goc_haritasi-haberi-17820.html


http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6%C3%A7#T.C3.BCrkiyede_.C4.B0.C3.A7_G.C3.B6.C3.A

1 comment:

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