Sunday, February 14, 2010


ACCULTURATION (Acculturation, Acculturazione, Aculturaţie, Kültürel Etkileşim) is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct.

ASYLUM (Asile, Asílo, Azil, İltica, Asyl):
Right of asylum (or political asylum, Greek: ἄσυλον ) is an ancient juridical notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries(as in medieval times). In contemporary international law, asylum is the protection granted to a foreign citizen by a state against that individual's home state.

ASSIMILATION (Assimilation, Integrazione, Asimilare, Asimilasyon, Proniknutí): The process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the prevailing culture. The expression of their identity and their specific socio-cultural origin are confined to the private sphere.

BIRTHRIGHT (Droit du sang, Diritto di nascita, Drept dobândit prin naştere, Doğuştan kazanılan hak, Rodná práva): a right or privilege that you are entitled to at birth. Right to acquire citizenship based on parentage.


(Fuite des cerveaux, Fuga dei cervelli, Exodul creierelor, Beyin göçü, Únik mozků): a large emigration of individuals with technical skills or knowledge, normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity or political instability.

CITIZENSHIP (Citoyenneté, Cittadinanza, Cetăţenie, Vatandaşlık, Občanství): Citizenship refers to a person's membership in a political community such as a country or city.

COLONY (Colonie, Colonia, Colonie, Sömürge, Osada) : a territory politically controlled by a distant country.

COMMUTING (Migration pendulaire, Pendolarismo, Navetism, Kente gelen, Dojíždění): Commuting is regular travel between one's place of residence and place of work or full time study.

CULTURAL ASSIMILATION (Assimilation culturelle, Integrazione culturale, Asimilare culturală, Kültürel Asimilasyon, Kulturní proniknutí) is the process by which an individual or group acquires the cultural traits of a different ethnic group.

DEPORTATION (Déportation, Deportazióne, Deportare, Sınır dışı etme, Deportace): Deportation means the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The expulsion of natives is also called banishment, exile, or penal transportation.

DIASPORA (Diaspora, Diaspora, Diaspora, Yahudilerin sürgünden sonar dünyaya yayılması, Šíření) : the dispersion or spreading of people from their original homelands and who maintain a sense of belonging, identity (as is the case for Jews).

DISCRIMINATION (Discrimination, Discriminazióne, Discriminare, Ayrım, Diskriminace): is a sociological term referring to treatment taken toward or against a person of a certain group that is taken in consideration based on class or category. Discriminatory behaviours take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.

EMIGRATE (Émigrer,Emigrare, Emigra, Göçmek, Emigrovat): to leave one's country to permanently resettle in another country. It's easy to confuse the terms "emigrate" and "immigrate." Just remember that you "emigrate from" your home country and "immigrate to" a new country.

EMIGRATION (Émigration, Emigrazione, Emigraţie, Göç, Emigrace): the act of leaving one's native country or region to settle in another. It is the same as immigration but from the perspective of the country of origin.

EMIGRANT (Émigrant, Emigrant, Göçmen): someone who leaves one country to settle in another.

EQUALITARIANISM (Égalitarisme, Egualitarismo, Egalitarism, Eşitçilik, Rovnostářství) is defined either as a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights or as a social philosophy advocating the removal of economic inequalities among people.

ETHNIC GROUP (Groupe ethnique, Gruppo etnico, Grup etnic, Etnik Grup, Etnická skupina): group of people who are part of a common and distinctive culture. An ethnic group can be determined on the basis of a complex set of characteristics, including race, nationality, religion, ancestry, and language.

ETHNOCENTRISM (Ethnocentrisme, Etnocentrismo, Etnocentrism, Etnik merkezcilik , Ethnocentrismus) : the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own. The ethnocentric individual will judge other groups relative to their own particular ethnic group or culture, especially with concern to language, behavior, customs, and religion.

EXILE (Exil, Esílio, Exil, Sürgün, Exil): the act of expelling a person from their native land; the state or a period of forced or voluntary absence from one's country or home.

EXODUS (Exode, Esodo, Exod, Bir yerden kitle halinde ayrılma, Exodus): a journey by a large group to escape from a hostile environment.

FREEDOM (Liberté, Libertá, Libertate, Özgürlük, Svoboda): the condition of being free; the right to act , speak or think without externally imposed restraints.

IDENTITY (Identité, Identitá, Identitate, Ayrımsızlık, Identita ): the set of characteristics by which a thing is definitively recognizable or known; the set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual is recognizable as a member of a group; the distinct personality of an individual, individuality.

IMMIGRATE (Immigrer, Immigrare, Imigra, Göç Etmek, Imigrovat): To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native.

IMMIGRANT (Immigrant, Immigrante, Imigrant, Imigrant): a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence.

INTEGRATION (Intégration, Integrazione, Integrare, Bütünleşme, Integrace): the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community.

SOCIAL INTEGRATION (Intégration sociale, Integrazione sociale, Integrare socială, Toplumsal bütünleşme, Sociální integrace), in sociology and other social sciences is the movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of society. Members of the minority groups thus gain full access to the opportunities, rights and services available to the members of the mainstream.

INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE (Compétence interculturelle, Competenza Interculturale, Competenţă interculturală, Kültürlerarası yeterlilik, Mezikulturní Příslušnost) is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures.

JUS SOLI (Droit du sol, Drept pământean, Doğum yeri ölçütü, Právo místa) :Jus soli (Latin: law of ground) or birthright citizenship, is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognized to any individual born in the territory of the related state.

MIGRATION (Migration, Migrazione, Migraţie, Göç, Migrace) : temporary or permanent change of residence by an individual or group. The terms in-migration and out-migration are used for internal migration, where no national boundaries are crossed, and the simplest classification separates this from international migration.

MINORITY (Minorité, Minoranza, Minoritate, Azınlık, Menšina): A group within a country or state that differs in race, religion, or national origin from the dominant group.

MOTHERLAND (Madrepatria, Patrie, Anavatan) : Motherland is a term that may refer to a mother country, i.e. the place of one's birth, the place of origin of an ethnic group or immigrant, or a Metropole in contrast to its colonies.

MULTICULTURALISM: The status of several different ethnic, racial, religious or cultural groups co-existing in harmony in the same society.

NATIONALISM (Nationalisme, Nazionalísmo, Naţionalism, Milliyetçilik) refers to an ideology, a sentiment, a form of culture, or a social movement that focuses on the nation.

NATURALIZATION (Naturalisation, Naturalizzazióne, Naturalizare, Yurttaşlığa Kabul, Zdomácnění): Naturalization is the acquisition of nationality or citizenship by a person who does not have it by birth.

NOMAD (Nomade, Nòmade, Nomad, Göçebe, Poutník): a member of a group of people who, having no fixed home, move around seasonally in search of food, water and grazing etc; a wanderer.

OPPRESSION (Oppression, Oppressióne, Opresiune, Baskı, Útisk): exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.

PERSECUTION (Persécution, Persécuzióne, Persecuţie, Zulüm, Pronásledování): Unjust and cruel measures against someone for ideological, racial, political or religious. Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution.

RACISM (Racisme, Razzísmo, Rasism, Irkçılık, Rasismus) is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. In the case of institutional racism, certain racial groups may be denied rights or benefits, or get preferential treatment.

REFUGEE (Réfugié, Rifugiato , Refugiat, Mülteci, Uprchlík) : A refugee is a person who flees to escape conflict, persecution or natural disaster.

REVERSE DISCRIMINATION (Discrimination positive, Discriminazione a rovescio, Discriminare pozitivă, Tersine ayrımcılık , Obrácená diskriminace) is viewed as discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group in order to promote members of a minority or consistently disadvantaged group (benign discrimination).

RESIDENCE PERMIT (Titre de séjour, Permesso di soggiorno, Permis de şedere, İkamet izni, Povolení k pobytu): A residence permit is an official document issued under certain conditions by the administration of certain countries. The residence card documents the right of residence (usually temporary, often renewable) to a foreign national. It may also serve or take the place of work permits in some countries.

RURAL EXODUS (Exode rural, Abbandono delle campagne, Exod rural, Kırsal kesimden göç, Venkovský exodus) : migration from rural areas to the cities.

SOCIAL EXCLUSION (Exclusion sociale, Esclusione sociale, Excluziune socială, Sosyal dışlanma, Vylouční ze společnosti) The process whereby certain groups are pushed to the margins of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, low education or inadequate lifeskills. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks. They have little access to power and decision-making bodies and little chance of influencing decisions or policies that affect them, and little chance of bettering their standard of living.

STATELESS (Apatride, Senza stato / apolide, Apatrid, Vatansız, bez státní příslušnosti): without citizenship or nationality, not subject to any state.

STRANGER (Étranger, Straniero, Străin, Yabancı, Cizinec): a person who comes from a foreign country; anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found.

SYNCRETISM (Syncrétisme, Sincretismo, Sincretism, Bağdaştırmacılık, Syncretismus) is the interworking of two or more cultural perspectives into one system; blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait. Also called fusion.

TOLERANCE (Tolérance, Tolleránza, Toleranţă, Hoşgörü, Tolerance): the ability to tolerate the beliefs or practices of others; permissiveness: a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior.

WITHOUT PAPER/ UNDOCUMENTED (Sans papier, Senza documenti, Clandestin, İzinsiz göç, Bez dokladů) : not having official documentation required to enter, live or work in a country; lacking necessary documents.

XENOPHOBIA (Xénophobie, Xenofobia, Xenofobie, Yabancı Olandan Korkma, Xenofobie) is a dislike and/or fear of that which is unknown or different from oneself. The term is typically used to describe a fear or dislike of foreigners or of people significantly different from oneself, usually in the context of visibly differentiated minorities.


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